Category Archives: Talks

James Bond, Espionage and Britain’s Role in the World” Professor AnthonyTaylor 6th January 2020

 

Ian Fleming — writer

Sean Connery as James Bond 

 Like many mem­bers, I’ve enjoyed mat­ters James Bond for much of my life: boy­hood queueing out­side my local ODEON to see ‘Dr No’ in the early ‘six­ties to 007 accom­pa­ny­ing Her Majesty on her heli­copter ride, sans corgis, to the 2012 London Olympics.  Two iconic Brits!

Our speaker this week, Tony Taylor from Sheffield Hallam University, was to enlighten us as to how the antics of James Bond and his cre­ator, Ian Fleming (1908–1964) reflec­ted British soci­ety, cul­ture, and atti­tudes from 1945 to the end of the ‘cold’ war in 1990.  Fleming, the son of the wealthy bank­ing family, was edu­cated at Eton and RMA Sandhurst and was well con­nec­ted. While not involved in direct action, his ser­vice in mil­it­ary intel­li­gence in WW2 (includ­ing plan­ning Operation ‘Golden Eye’) and later as a journ­al­ist, provided much of the back­ground of the twelve novels and col­lec­tions of short stor­ies he wrote between 1952 and his death. Over 100 mil­lion books were sold. There have been sev­eral later books and movies of the same genre, writ­ten by eight dif­fer­ent authors and no less than seven actors play­ing the lead char­ac­ter, ran­ging from Sean Connery to Daniel Craig.  A fur­ther film, ‘No Time to Die’ is due for release in 2020.  Tony divided his talk into the fol­low­ing topics.

Spy Rings and Spy Nets.  Tony out­lined how the pop­u­lar image of spies and organ­ised spying agen­cies goes back to the Edwardian era and thriller writers like William le Queux.  This cul­ture, in our speaker’s view, also had a strong imper­ial dimen­sion –in ‘the great game’, British and Russian spies battled over the latter’s aspir­a­tion to fer­ment trouble along the NW fron­tier with Afganistan (see Rudyard Kipling’s Kim 1901).  Despite much activ­ity (eg Operation Mincemeat) and mixed suc­cess on both sides in the two World Wars, it was the ‘Cold War’ (1945–1990) when spies came into their own.  ‘Operation Gold’ estab­lished listen­ing posts under East Berlin to tap into Soviet tele­phone and tele­graph traffic. The ‘Cambridge’ trio of Burgess, Philby and Mclane were the most effect­ive Soviet spy ring in Europe.  All  ended up defect­ing to Russia.  George Blake of MI6 worked as a double agent for the Soviet Union. He was dis­covered in 1961, escaped from Wormwood Scrubs in 1966 and smuggled out of the coun­try in a camper van.  In 1963,  theMinister of Defence, John Profumo, was com­prom­ised by his asso­ci­ation with Christine Keeler who was also sleep­ing with the Soviet Naval attache.  There was feel­ing through­out this period of estab­lish­ment cover ups, reflect­ing a Britain in decline and dec­ad­ence which was cap­tured in the fic­tion of John le Carre and Len Deighton.

Spy Novels and Super Spies.  Spies were to cap­ture the pop­u­lar ima­gin­a­tion during the Cold War.  In a push button world of detached mass killing, the spy some­times emerged as an unlikely hero. Ian Fleming’s hero James Bond 007 first appeared in print in the novel Casino Royale in 1952, during the Korean War. Tony con­sidered Fleming’s books to be very con­ser­vat­ive in tone and to reflect the ascend­ancy of Conservative gov­ern­ments in Britain after 1951.  Criticism of the wel­fare state, trades unions and bohemi­ans is very strong in the texts, with an emphasis on ‘sex, snob­bery and viol­ence’.

Spying and the Loss of Empire.   Imperial themes loom large in the Bond books.  Many of the set­tings are in the West Indies, par­tic­u­larly Jamaica, where Fleming had a house called ‘Goldeneye’.  Fleming liked the static social hier­arch­ies in Jamaica, and, in Casino Royale, Bond poses as a Jamaican planter. In Dr No all the action takes place in the West Indies, still an active part of the Empire at the time.  The vil­lains wear Nehru jack­ets and are often mixed race. The idea of dual iden­tity was offens­ive for a par­tic­u­lar gen­er­a­tion of Englishmen, brought up under the Empire.  Often the vil­lains rep­res­ent the foes of Empire at a time of decol­on­isa­tion. By 1950 even white set­tlers in the Dominions had nego­ti­ated sep­ar­ate treat­ies with the US.  Roger Moore’s safari jacket in the films car­ries ele­ments of the colo­nial and post-colonial iden­tit­ies.  Europe and the EEC are barely men­tioned in the books and they bear out the con­ten­tion of Dean Acheson that ‘Britain has lost an Empire but not yet found a role’.

Spies and the ‘Special Relationship’Tony con­sidered that the Bond novels pre­serve the vision of Britain as a great power and ignore the country’s post-war decline.  Bond is a former Commander in Naval Intelligence. His boss‘ M’,  is also a former Naval Officer, hark­ing back to the days when Britain ruled the waves and her navy pro­tec­ted British interests abroad. The books provide a con­sol­at­ory myth, embod­ied in Bond’s Aston Martins and Bentleys and his liking of mono­grammed shirts and Moorland cigar­ettes.  There are Atlanticist themes in the Bond novels, some of which tar­geted an American audi­ence (eg. Live and let Die).   John F. Kennedy was a huge fan (espe­cially Russia with Love),  Bond fre­quently coming to the aid of CIA agents. During and after the 1956 Suez crisis US/UK rela­tions chilled and their ebb and flow is chartered in the novels. US war­i­ness of UK Soviet moles or Marxist sym­path­ising politi­cians is noth­ing new.

Spies and Gadgets.  Heath Robinson tricks are import­ant to spies.  Fleming’s intel­li­gence work in WW2 spe­cial­ised in out­rageous inven­tions and plans to cap­ture German mil­it­ary secrets.  In the Bond novels the emphasis on gad­gets con­sti­tuted a nos­tal­gic glance back to the days when Britain’s tech­no­lo­gical lead helped her to defeat the Germans (Radar, decod­ing Enigma, boun­cing bombs, bend­ing dir­ec­tional beams etc).  Bond has his gun sights hidden in Palmolive shav­ing foam and an explod­ing cigar­ette in From Russia with love.  Bond hides his guns in a book called “The Bible Designed to be read as Literature”and Rosa  Klebb con­ceals knives in her shoes.

Spies and enemies in an atomic mis­sile world.  The Bond books convey a strong sense of an unstable world, where nuc­lear pro­lif­er­a­tion has made atomic war­heads easily avail­able.  In Thunderball, British nuc­lear weapons are hijacked and stolen by Bond’s arch enemy, Ernst Blofeld Head of SPECTRE, a crim­inal organ­isa­tion intent on world dom­in­a­tion.  Dr No also sends rock­ets off course, so that he can sell them to the Chinese.

 Tony con­cluded his much appre­ci­ated talk by invit­ing ques­tions, which ranged from Bond’s know­ledge of wines to film loc­a­tions, sets, and the evol­u­tion of char­ac­ters.  He thought that many depic­tions in the later post Fleming  books and films appear to be out­dated, plu­to­cratic fig­ures in which their vil­lainy is expressed via dis­ab­il­ity or phys­ical impair­ment.  However, be it mis­siles or vil­lains, all were framed by aston­ish­ing back­drops in the air, under the sea and even in an active vol­cano!

 

Funny Turns Returns Again  Dave Moylan 23rd December 2019 

Returning for the fourth time, Dave Moylan once again kept the assembled mem­bers of Stumperlowe Probus enter­tained and amused with his vari­ety act of songs, magic and humour, old jokes and new.

Dave gave an intro­duc­tion to his long life in the enter­tain­ment industry pre­dom­in­antly as a drum­mer sup­port­ing many well known acts and comedi­ans tour­ing around the coun­try from his home in Derby. Dave’s life as a drum­mer really took off how­ever when, as he said, he real­ised he had a voice like a lark a pil­lark (boom boom).

To warm up his audi­ence Dave sang his first ditty with audi­ence par­ti­cip­a­tion a real tongue teaser though the audience’s part was lim­ited to Oi Oi thank­fully. This was fol­lowed by a cun­ning rope trick ably assisted by David. There then fol­lowed a read­ing from news­pa­per reports or so we were told includ­ing the fol­low­ing  …

A man from Leicester who had recently had a ground break­ing pig’s ear trans­plant was asked if everything was now much improved who respon­ded that all was fine apart from a little crack­ling.

A Bradford man was found having eaten 12 packs of curry powder. He was not how­ever dead but was in a korma.

Reports of a shoot­ing with a start­ing pistol were being invest­ig­ated by the police, who thought it may have been related to a race crime.

A boat was found crashed into the Thames bar­rier police believed it may have been the start of ram a dam.

Dave then remin­isced over long estab­lished comedi­ans Max Millar, Al Reid, Bob Monkhouse, Mike and Bernie Winters and others, includ­ing a tale of when the Winters broth­ers were per­form­ing at the Glasgow Empire. Mike had just fin­ished his cla­ri­net solo and was fol­lowed on stage by Bernie only to hear from the back if the aud­it­or­ium: “Jesus Christ, there are two of them.”  The Glasgow Empire was the death of many a per­former.

Following this, Dave asked Glynn to help with a mind read­ing trick and to think of a number. When asked if he had a number he replied to much amuse­ment round the room:  “Yes, 88,” at which point Dave had to explain the nature of a mind read­ing trick. Glynn then thought of another number which Dave then guessed cor­rectly.

Dave then wound up his show with a bar­rage of jokes, one liners and anec­dotes too many to recall but includ­ing …

Rabbithole Johnson: His par­ents wanted to call him Warren, but were too drunk to remem­ber this at the Registry Office.

Lorry being flashed at for over two miles down the road even­tu­ally stopped to be told by a fol­low­ing Norwegian driver that he was shed­ding his load, to which the lorry driver replied: “No I am grit­ting the road.”

Man who watches his wed­ding video back­wards so it has a happy ending.

Man knocks at door. I’ve come from Everest you have not paid any­thing for three years, to which the house­holder replied: “You said they would pay for them­selves in eight­een months.”

Then with a final flour­ish Dave did an amaz­ing torn tissue trick fin­ish­ing his act in grand style and to much applause.

 

The secret WW2 listeners of Gilnahirk  16th December 2019 by Professor John Guest

This talk has little to do with John Guest’s back­ground in Biochemistry and much to do with the secret world of Bletchley Park during WW2.  He struc­tured his talk as a jour­ney of dis­cov­ery begin­ning with his later school days in Belfast in 1952 where he was friends with Tony Banham.

Around 1952–53 John was in the RAF Section of his school’s C.C.F. and became involved with glid­ing and he obtained a Gliding Certificate.  He would travel past a suburb of Belfast called Gilnahirk on his way to the Ulster Flying Club at Newtonards by Strangford Lough.  He obtained a schol­ar­ship to read Biochemistry at Leeds University and left Belfast for Yorkshire.

John was intrigued by a book entitled “Gilnahirk’s best kept secret” by Benvista and first pub­lished in 2006.  John had been totally unaware that a radio listen­ing sta­tion had been oper­at­ing in Gilnahirk since the late 1930’s and this was upgraded to a full RSS (Radio Security Service) Station in 1942.  He was even more sur­prised to dis­cover the Officer in charge was Colonel Joe Banham his old school friend’s father.  He set about find­ing his friend who was now Lt. Commander A Banham RN Retired and a photo shows John with Tony together again in 2015.

He dis­covered that Tony’s father had told him very little about his war­time activ­it­ies and his con­nec­tion to Bletchley Park and GCHQ.  John was intrigued and set about trying to find more about this national secret for him­self.

The Wireless Interception Service or “Y” Service were work­ing for four ser­vices: Navy; Army; Air Force and most import­antly Military Intelligence and M18. As the RSS its func­tion was: to inter­cept and record signal traffic; to locate and close down illi­cit wire­less trans­mis­sion; to recruit and manage Voluntary Interceptors and to send signal and data to Bletchley Park.  At the start of the war radio hams all over the coun­try were invited to volun­teer as Interceptors.  Those selec­ted gave at least 2 hours a day listen­ing and log­ging radio sig­nals.  The logged mes­sages were entered onto a stand­ard RSS Log Sheet that was posted to an address in Barnet.  As soon as a Post Office received a letter with this address it was either tele­graphed or sent by des­patch rider to Bletchley Park/GCHQ.  Besides inter­cept­ing for­eign radio sig­nals, local mes­sages were also mon­itored to detect pos­sible spy infilt­ra­tion.  An import­ant part of the activ­it­ies at Gilnahirk was prob­ably to inter­cept radio traffic in the Atlantic and espe­cially sub­mar­ine sig­nals. 

These vol­un­tary Interceptors oper­ated from home, often in roof spaces or garden sheds.  In the early 1940’s there were over a thou­sand listen­ers.

Gilnahirk was involved with intel­li­gence relat­ing to the sink­ing of the Bismark and loc­at­ing the Scharnhorst.

AfterWW2, Gilnahirk con­tin­ued as a wire­less sta­tion through­out the Cold War.  In 1951, it was rebuilt as a brick two storey build­ing that accom­mod­ated hun­dreds of per­son­nel.  In the late 1970’s it was closed down and demol­ished in 2009.  The site has now a block of flats called Gilly Court Manor.

John’s talk is not only fas­cin­at­ing espe­cially to an audi­ence born during the life­time of Gilly wire­less sta­tion but is a reminder of how such things might be recor­ded for the public before memor­ies die out.

Newspapers, social media & politics in Divisive Times — Nancy Fielder — Mon 9th Dec 2019

These are troubled times for prin­ted news­pa­pers, all of whom are haem­or­rhaging cir­cu­la­tion in the face of com­pet­i­tion from the inter­net, and social media in par­tic­u­lar. Many are in their death throes.

For some­body who spent his entire work­ing life in journ­al­ism, the fig­ures make depress­ing read­ing. When I star­ted work on the Yorkshire Evening News in 1961 it was (unbe­liev­ably by today’s stand­ards) selling 119,000 copies a day across its Leeds and Doncaster edi­tions, and yet by the end of 1963 it had gone to the wall, regarded as uneco­nomic and absorbed by the rival Evening Post.

Today, regional even­ing news­pa­per edit­ors can only dream of a cir­cu­la­tion any­where near that figure. In Sheffield, The Star, des­pite having the field to itself as far as South Yorkshire is con­cerned, is strug­gling along on a print cir­cu­la­tion of less than 12,000 copies a day.

Nancy Fielder. © Prolific North Ltd.

Nancy Fielder is editor of JPI Media’s stable of daily and weekly news­pa­pers based in Sheffield, includ­ing The Star and weekly Sheffield Telegraph, and she had already filled us in on the state of play in the news­pa­per industry gen­er­ally when she last vis­ited Stumperlowe Probus Club in July 2018. Since then, things have only got worse.

Nancy’s latest present­a­tion, timed to per­fec­tion just three days before a General Election, was more about the part played by news­pa­pers and the inter­net, includ­ing their own online offer­ings and social media plat­forms such as Facebook and Twitter, in influ­en­cing public opin­ion.

The Star website’s selec­tion of news stor­ies.

Johnston Press plc, the country’s biggest regional news­pa­per pub­lisher and the Sheffield titles’ pre­vi­ous owner with a market cap­it­al­isa­tion of just £3 mil­lion, placed itself in admin­is­tra­tion in November 2018 when it was unable to find a suit­able buyer of the busi­ness to refin­ance its £220 mil­lion of debt. Its assets were brought under the con­trol of JPI Media Ltd, a com­pany formed by a con­sor­tium of Johnston Press’s main cred­it­ors who reduced its debts to £85 mil­lion and injec­ted £35 mil­lion of invest­ment.

The real­ity is that fewer people are buying the print product, and that is where most of the money comes from, but more people are access­ing our web­site,” explained Nancy, fresh from her appear­ance dis­cuss­ing the week­end papers on BBC Breakfast.

Generating enough money from the web­site to make up the loss of income from the prin­ted paper is easier said than done. Advertising rev­enue goes some way towards this, but the busi­ness model is com­plic­ated and the long-term viab­il­ity of the web­site is far from cer­tain des­pite, or per­haps because of, the ease with which people can click on www.thestar.co.uk by fol­low­ing a link from, say, Facebook.

More than half of all the ‘hits’ we get online come via Facebook,” Nancy told us. So that must mean that Facebook is doing The Star a big favour by driv­ing traffic to their web­site. Well, yes and no. Obviously, the more people who visit the web­site the more The Star can charge advert­isers for the priv­ilege, but only to a cer­tain point. Because who are The Star com­pet­ing with for advert­ising rev­enue? You’ve guessed it – Facebook.

Companies such as Google and Facebook can under­cut us for advert­ising because they are so big but, although we are having to com­pete with them [for income from advert­ising] it is our news that people are click­ing on. And we have a shrink­ing number of report­ers with an ever bigger job to do.”

So, while there is no doubt that news­pa­per web­sites such as The Star’s are attract­ing a healthy amount of traffic, just how sus­tain­able they will be in the long term from a com­mer­cial point of view is still largely an unknown.

In September, in the face of squeezed advert­ising rev­en­ues, The Star took a sig­ni­fic­ant step in secur­ing the viab­il­ity of its web­site by intro­du­cing a so-called pay­wall. This allows read­ers to view five free art­icles a week, after which they will have to register and choose from a range of sub­scrip­tion plans such as £1 per month for three months and £2 per week there­after, or £52 for the first full year and £78 per year there­after.

One inter­est­ing dif­fer­ence between prin­ted news­pa­pers and a web­site is that con­tent can be better tailored to meet read­ers’ tastes.

As Nancy explained: “With the front page [of the news­pa­per] it was always a bit of a gut reac­tion, what we thought people would like, but now we can actu­ally see what people are look­ing at.

But it is doubt­ful that the elec­tion will be the most read item.”

To illus­trate her point, Nancy brought along a screen shot of the elec­tronic ‘score­board’ which is per­man­ently on dis­play in The Star’s news­room and shows, in real time and updated almost by the second, what vis­it­ors to the web­site are look­ing at.

On the morn­ing of her visit, the most read item up to eight o’clock had been Sheffield United’s comeback against Norwich City. The first polit­ical story on the list, about LibDem leader Jo Swinson’s visit to Sheffield, ranked only sixth.

If they are not look­ing at polit­ics today, when will they be?” she asked. “We know what interests the people out there. If they are not click­ing on polit­ics, why should we write about polit­ics?

It is a very wor­ry­ing trend, and a depress­ing pic­ture that they [the fig­ures] paint.

How our local news used to look. A front page of The Star from 80 years ago. © British Newspaper Archive.

On a recent day, in the middle of the General Election cam­paign, the most viewed stor­ies were about a Sheffield cus­tomer who was turned away from a pub for wear­ing a flat cap, which attrac­ted 51,000 hits, and an item about a Sheffield mother who com­plained that her son’s day — “if not his life” — had been ruined by a Cadbury’s advent cal­en­dar which was miss­ing its chocol­ates, and which attrac­ted 47,000 views.

You get more money, the greater number of people look­ing at your web­site, so you have to give them what they want to read,” Nancy added.

It’s quite a ser­i­ous debate, how to get people to engage with polit­ics. We’ve had stor­ies about national politi­cians coming to the city, which we have put on the front page of the prin­ted paper, but vir­tu­ally nobody was look­ing at them on the web­site.”

Nancy Fielder is not alone in her cam­paign against polit­ical parties imit­at­ing local news­pa­pers. © www.pressgazette.co.uk.

Nancy also believes that local demo­cracy is at risk because papers such as The Star, which will only pub­lish unbiased stor­ies, are often com­pet­ing with polit­ical leaf­lets which are made to look like local news­pa­pers. “Political parties put a tre­mend­ous amount of effort and money into pro­du­cing mater­ial which just isn’t true,” she claimed.

The Star was first pub­lished in 1887. Let’s hope it’s got a few more years’ life left in it.

 

Redifining Carbon in a Circular Economy – Prof Peter Styring — 2nd Dec 2019

John Laurie said, and it was said again by Peter Jackson at our meet­ing, “We’re doomed, we’re all doomed!” Here in Sheffield it’s really scary with a pre­dic­tion that Millhouses Park, as well as East Anglia, Lincolnshire, north­ern Germany, the Low Countries and many other low lying lands around the world will be part of the sea bed by 2100. Stumperlowe should escape, how­ever.

So some­thing drastic needs to be done. There’s a lot of elec­tion noise here at the moment, and indeed at a much higher level at the immin­ent G20 about tack­ling carbon emis­sions. Do our politi­cians have a handle on the scale of the prob­lem and what to do about it?

Peter Styring, Professor of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry at the University of Sheffield, is such an inter­na­tional author­ity on the sub­ject that politi­cians and industry are taking him and others in the field very ser­i­ously. Peter is Director of the UK Centre for Carbon Dioxide Utilisation and has his own com­pany (CO2Chem Media & Publishing) and has estab­lished the Styring Group. He is look­ing to set up a Brussels office. He has pub­lished the influ­en­tial “Carbon Capture and Utilisation in the Green Economy” and “Carbon Dioxide Utilisation: clos­ing the carbon cycle”. He delivered a stun­ning lec­ture to us, but at a cost of a met­eoric rise in carbon diox­ide (CO2) in the room and con­firmed by the num­bers on his pocket gas­o­meter at the end. Despite wor­ry­ing levels of such a narcolepsy-inducing gas-filled air, every­one stayed awake.

Global warm­ing is asso­ci­ated with increas­ing carbon diox­ide levels. Coral reefs are dis­ap­pear­ing. Fisheries at low lat­it­ude around the world are being lost. Arctic regions are melt­ing. There’s more water and heat in the atmo­sphere caus­ing weather extremes. Rising water levels lead to coastal flood­ing. Here in Sheffield, there’s already sig­ni­fic­ant heat related mor­bid­ity and mor­tal­ity res­ult­ing in 500 to 700 deaths, largely from par­tic­u­late matter in the air.

We’re now at the tip­ping point, so every­one needs to be acutely envir­on­ment­ally and eco­nom­ic­ally aware. To avoid cata­strophe, at cur­rent emis­sion rates, and to limit a global warm­ing rise of 1.5 degrees C by 2055, global carbon diox­ide emis­sions must by then have reached net zero, start­ing now. Radiative factors such as meth­ane, nitrous oxide (not a laugh­ing gas matter) and aer­o­sols need to reduce by 2030.

Perversely, wind tur­bines are not low carbon at all, emit­ting five per cent of the SF6 (sul­phurhex­a­flu­or­ide) which leaks from its casing and is dan­ger­ous! SF6 from tur­bines emit 24000x carbon equi­val­ent of CO2. It’s used as an insu­lator which pre­vents arcing.

Internationally (and many coun­tries are drag­ging their feet), industry must be will­ing to engage. Carbon cap­ture util­isa­tion (CCU) and stor­age (CCS) is the only solu­tion. A global carbon price is essen­tial there­fore it must be taxed. CCU must be prop­erly sub­sid­ised on a level play­ing field. Vast sub­sidies to pro­tect jobs are already made to the oil and gas indus­tries. The same is true for CCS pro­jects, yet CCU does not yet attract sub­sidies. There will need to be a gradual (rather than sudden) trans­ition as a “calmer” to the pet­ro­chem­ical industry.

It was encour­aging to hear from Peter that Unilever is now taking CCU all very ser­i­ously, with home care products ini­tially but now with a ripple effect on their whole industry.

So what exactly is CCU? This is carbon cap­ture without the need for geo­lo­gical stor­age. Carbon diox­ide from power sta­tions, factor­ies and the atmo­sphere can be used for the pro­duc­tion of fossil oil sub­sti­tutes, feed­stock for farm anim­als, plastics, sur­fact­ants, con­crete, bio­fuel, and avi­ation fuel. The whole pro­cess is carbon neut­ral and depends on algal pho­to­syn­thesis (energy from light). Drax use it with their waste water. Another method is con­ver­sion into hydro­car­bons which can be stored as energy or con­ver­ted into fuel or plastics. Chemical inter­me­di­ates from CCU can be pro­cessed into phar­ma­ceut­ic­als, health care and con­sumer products.

The gov­ern­ment claims it is com­mit­ted to deploy­ing CCU, cap­tur­ing carbon and stor­age on a long-term basis, but any delay after 2030 will not achieve its aim of com­ply­ing to a limit of a 1.5 degrees C rise by 2050.

© co2chem

Government plan­ning is short on detail about removal of green­house gases and action on CCU and CCS. Neither adequate private invest­ment nor research fund­ing is in place. Clarity is needed. Brexit takes pri­or­ity at the moment, at the expense of social justice and account­ab­il­ity. For instance, Manchester has prom­ised CO2 emis­sion reduc­tion of 49% by 2025 by means of a Clean Air Zone, more elec­tric vehicles (EV) and CCS. The prob­lem is that EVs are not zero emis­sion and their plans for CCS facil­it­ies are unclear. Biomass is not the pan­acea. It is not carbon neut­ral. The UK energy mix cur­rently falls far short of the ideal (com­bined cycle gas tur­bines 56.2%, open cycle gas tur­bines 0%, oil 0%, coal 5.9%, nuc­lear 16.7%, wind 9.7%, pumped stor­age hydro 0%). If we’re not at net zero by 2029 it will be the tip­ping point, so the politi­cians need real policies to back up their polit­ical state­ments. This is a long term game, so ser­i­ous cross party think­ing and decisions are urgently needed. “The world will not evolve past its cur­rent crisis by the same think­ing that cre­ated it” (Einstein — para­phrased)

The Lansing tri­angle sums up where we need to be — in the green bit at the top, avoid­ing fossil fuels unless care­fully man­aged. Worst of all is CCS and land­fill. Sheffield’s pro­posed Clean Air Charge is flawed. It cleans up the city centre but defers the prob­lem to the sub­urbs. The worst emis­sions are cur­rently already owned by the Station, Abbeydale Road, Ecclesall Road and Broomhill. These will get worse. Other examples of our City Council’s wisdom are the diesel gen­er­ator for the Ferris wheel at ground level, pois­on­ing all the kids around. Old pol­lut­ing diesel taxis and buses are a major prob­lem. The solu­tion is an urgent need to “reduce and reuse”. We were advised to hang onto our old dies­els as tech­no­logy is on the way to make them carbon friendly. In the mean­time, get a bike.

 

For the future, e-fuels from CCU are per­haps the most import­ant. CCU isn’t new. The first CCU plant was built by Joseph Priestley at the Leeds brew­ery in 1772. He inven­ted fizzy drinks (as well as other things).

Carbon found in any­thing can be extrac­ted as CO2 to util­ise it and make it carbon neut­ral, for instance in extrac­tion of iron from its ore. There are count­less syn­thetic sub­stances which con­tain carbon. Any of these can be sourced from CCU.

Sustainable agro­chem­ic­als can feed the world. Blue urea pro­duc­tion has excit­ing poten­tial as a fer­til­iser and is truly carbon neg­at­ive. Furthermore, there are plans to pro­duce it in ship­ping con­tain­ers on site at farms where it’s needed. This is a great example of CCU as a renew­able commodity-based tech­no­logy with the capa­city to use carbon diox­ide emis­sions in remote loc­a­tions where there is no oppor­tun­ity for geo­lo­gical stor­age.

Artistry in Stone, Wood & Bronze by Frank Tory & Sons, of Sheffield — Dr Sylvia Dunkley — 25th Nov 2019

Sheffield city centre is blessed with many strik­ing build­ings of archi­tec­tural qual­ity from the late 19th and early 20th cen­tur­ies demon­strat­ing the wealth and prestige of the city at that time. Many of the build­ings were fur­ther enhanced by super­ior stone carvings, many of which were hand craf­ted by the family com­pany Frank Tory and Sons. The firm was in busi­ness from the early 1880’s to the late 1950’s and was owned by Frank Tory and his twin sons Alfred Herbert and William Frank . Apart from stone, the com­pany worked in wood, marble , bronze, copper and plaster.

Frank Tory was born in 1848, des­cen­ded from Huguenot refugees. He ori­gin­ated from London and trained at the Lambeth School of Art, coming to Sheffield in 1880 to work on a stone carving con­tract at the Corn Exchange .(gutted by fire 1947, demol­ished 1964) Tory’s work was of such a high stand­ard that it was sug­ges­ted he stayed in Sheffield where there would be plenty of work for him. His work at the Corn Exchange brought him into con­tact with the archi­tect Matthew Hadfield whose son Charles recom­men­ded Tory set up his own busi­ness.

Alfred and William Tory’s depic­tion of the Sheffield trades on the White Building in Fitzalan Square.

Frank’s identical twin sons Alfred (1881 — 1971) and William (1881 – 1968) trained under their father who also taught at the Sheffield School of Art and even­tu­ally joined the family busi­ness. Frank and his sons worked together with the sons gradu­ally taking over the com­pany and win­ning many com­mis­sions in the 1920’s and 1930’s. Frank Tory died in 1939 and when Alfred and William retired in the late 1950’s , the firm was wound up because archi­tec­tural styles were chan­ging with stone carvings and sculp­ture becom­ing unfash­ion­able in modern build­ings.

Frank Tory’s work on Parade Chambers includes images of Geoffrey Chaucer and William Caxton with the date 1883.

The talk by Sylvia chal­lenged us all to stop walk­ing with our eyes glued to the ground or straight ahead but to look up and study these old build­ings enhanced by the artistic work of Frank Tory and Sons , and others. Take a look at the last­ing legacy they have given us on the fol­low­ing build­ings :-

Parade Chambers High Street (1883–85), Cairns Chambers Church Street, Carmel House Fargate, Sheffield City Hall, Sheffield Central Library (1934), Mappin Art Gallery (1937), White Building Fizalan Square (1908), Victoria Hall (1908). Sheffield Cathedral, Sheffield University (1926), Weston Park Museum, Old Fire Station. Look inside the churches of St Matthews, Cathedral Church of St Marie and St John’s.

Carvings on Sheffield Central Library by Alfred and William Tory

Their work was not con­fined to Sheffield as they under­took sig­ni­fic­ant assign­ments in Leeds ( Civic Hall), Chesterfield ( Town Hall and the Golden Fleece ), Preston ( St Ignatius Church), Birmingham (Fire Station) and Hull (Paragon Station).

The frieze over the east door at the Mappin Art Gallery.

It was an inter­est­ing talk which chal­lenged us to look at Sheffield’s old build­ings with a new aware­ness of the skills and ded­ic­a­tion which were needed to build and dec­or­ate them. Clearly, Frank Tory and his sons were artists of con­sid­er­able abil­ity and made a sig­ni­fic­ant con­tri­bu­tion to the her­it­age of Sheffield. Go, explore and admire the work of Frank Tory and Sons.