All posts by Tim Marsh

The Peak District in the Mid-1900s By Tim Knebel 15th October 2018

Tim is a volun­teer local arch­iv­ist for ‘’Peak in the Past’’ which is a com­munity her­it­age group com­pris­ing a small col­lect­ive of indi­vidu­als with a shared pas­sion for the Derbyshire Peak District and its past. Teaming up with his High Peak Journalist sister Holly, Tim has, from humble begin­nings in 2014, obtained fin­an­cial sup­port to enable the group to work with school­chil­dren, inspir­ing and enga­ging them in their local his­tory, through to eld­erly res­id­ents in res­id­en­tial care homes, gath­er­ing remin­is­cences. With gen­eral his­tory from ori­ginal archive sources, the group gives talks & has made films to reflect & con­trib­ute towards the import­ant sense of regional belong­ing, pride & iden­tity, to help strengthen & enrich com­munity cohe­sion.

The excel­lent illus­trated talk focused on local his­tory and com­munity events, rooted in the real lives of hard work­ing, some­times impov­er­ished rural folk, where the chances to travel away, were not as they are today.

Some past vil­lage cel­eb­ra­tions that occurred in the mid 1900s, high­lighted in the talk, were :-

  • Empire Day on 24th May, which was Queen Victorias’ birth­day and sub­sequently became Commonwealth Day on Queen Elizabeth IIs’ birth­day.
  • May Day, which is dying out
  • The Wakes e.g. on the dates of the Patron Saints of the local Churches
  • Well Dressings, still pop­u­lar
  • Festivals, Fetes, Carnivals, Garland Days, some now gone
  • Bakewell Show, star­ted in 1819, and Bakewell Carnival.
  • The choos­ing of Miss Village from the local beau­ties.

Schools held a more prom­in­ent role in the smal­ler com­munit­ies. Corporal pun­ish­ment was meted out at school & the chil­dren were sub­jec­ted to some­times tough regimes.

The churches were more at the centres of com­munity life with Sunday schools, choirs, girl guides, scouts, womens’ groups, fest­ivals, and sports teams of cricket, foot­ball, tennis, and tug-o-war.

In the smal­ler com­munit­ies enter­tain­ment was avail­able in the form of cinemas, Whist Drives, and theatre, in par­tic­u­lar the legendary Great Hucklow Village Players (1927–71) foun­ded by Dr. Du Guard Peach, which had a world­wide repu­ta­tion.

Pubs, Clubs and Institutes played a major part in vil­lage life, with Ex-Servicemens clubs, and the Mechanical Institute of Eyam prom­in­ent. There was a vil­lage police­man sup­por­ted by Special Constables from volun­teers in the vil­lage, and local emer­gency fire and ambu­lance ser­vices with cot­tage hos­pit­als in nearby larger towns.

WW2 brought evacu­ees to the area, and the Nightingale Institute for Guernsey evacu­ees at Great Hucklow was foun­ded. POW camps were set up in Stoney Middleton and the quarry was bombed to try to stop pro­duc­tion, even though some of the work­ers were POWs. Bombs were also stored at Stoney Middleton.

There was the inev­it­able loss of life amongst those who joined up for both world wars, remembered with prom­in­ent monu­ments and reg­u­lar memorial ser­vices.

Transport devel­op­ments changed hori­zons, with the Railway, cars, & sub­sequent road improve­ments. Winnats Pass was sur­faced in the 1930s & the AA man with his motor­bike and side­car appeared. The horse and cart deliv­ery meth­ods were dying out.

Attitudes were chan­ging and the Kinder Trespass took place in 1932. More leis­ure time was being taken which lead to Caving, Rambling, Climbing, and the first National Park in 1951.

Employment was centred around mining, espe­cially for lead and fluor­spar. Farming and agri­cul­ture and the mills at Bamford (closed 1965), Litton (1960), and Cressbrook (1971) were big employ­ers. The Hope Cement Works since 1945 is still a big pro­du­cer and employer.

There is a time­less splend­our to the Peak District, even with the pres­sures on it, like the flood­ing of Ashopton in the Derwent valley, to con­struct the dams, but the talk show­cased how an import­ant cul­tural her­it­age role is help­ing to pre­serve the past in the Peak District, which is integ­ral to its endur­ing appeal, its con­tin­ued envir­on­mental pro­tec­tion and its long-term sur­vival.

We’re very lucky to have volun­teers like Tim doing this work. More power to your elbow!

A most enjoy­able morn­ing.

For more inform­a­tion (and a few phrases cribbed from it) go to :-

www.peakinthepast.co.uk      e-mail for con­tact  info@peakinthepast.co.uk

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Past in the Present — Howard Smith — 13th August 2018

Howard, a reg­u­lar speaker at our Probus, explained that today’s’ illus­trated talk was aimed at encour­aging us to observe and under­stand the remain­ing vis­ible signs of Sheffield’s past, some of which we don’t nor­mally notice or appre­ci­ate.

These ranged from pre-Roman and Anglo Saxon times to the Viking and Norman influ­ence, through to  times when the area was a col­lec­tion of small vil­lages exist­ing on pas­toral farm­land with feudal land­lords and on to the devel­op­ment of the steel and cut­lery indus­tries in the Industrial Revolution, when the pop­u­la­tion expan­ded, and Sheffield was at the fore­front of world events.

Howard had pho­to­graphed relics around the Sheffield area, some of which are listed below, along with his explan­a­tion:-

Street names – Pinfold St., denot­ing a stray animal pen, always at the edge of town.

  • Lydgate Lane – a gate to stop cattle or sheep but not people, when Crookes was a sep­ar­ate vil­lage
  • Racker Way (Nr. Malin Bridge) a Viking word for a pack­horse.
  • Psalter Lane – actu­ally it was a salt pack­horse road, but it was mis-spelled in a cler­ical error and the name stuck
  • Ridgeways – they are ancient routes along water­sheds, as they are drier, clearer, safer etc
  • Parkhead – a set­tle­ment at the head of a deer park
  • Long Line in Dore – ori­gin­ally Long Lane drawn as a bound­ary on a map, which changed its name when the Sheffield bound­ary moved from the Limb Brook to the Burbage Brook.
  • Whirlow — a bound­ary (whir) on a hill or mound (low or HALW)
  • Stumperlowe — a stump on a mound.
  • Cotton Mill Rd (offCorporation St)– Near Kelham Island which (sur­prise, sur­prise) sig­ni­fied a cotton mill, which became a silk mill then West Bar Workhouse, now all long gone.
  • Scarsdale Rd. – sig­ni­fy­ing the owner of the land, who altered the name from Green Lane when he bought the land.
  • Stanley Rd. – Was this because of the man who found Livingstone?
  • Lismore Rd. – used to be Livingstone Rd. but it was changed when the bound­ary was moved as they already had a Livingstone Rd. in the new area.

Other fea­tures brought to our atten­tion included the fol­low­ing :-

-          Ancient hol­lo­ways – these were old unsur­faced roads which wore down into a hollow shape below the level of the sur­round­ing area e.g. Whirlow brook to Whirlow Hall farm

  • Typical unmetalled old roads which got filthy and muddy, so ‘’cau­seys’’ were built, which were raised flag­stone paths for ped­es­tri­ans along­side the road e.g. Bents Green to Whiteley Wood Farm or Cottage Rd. to Forge Dam
  • Pomona St. school – the trees out­side were planted to com­mem­or­ate WW1 vic­tims
  • The Cricketers Arms on Bramall Lane – a reminder of where ini­tially, cricket was played more ser­i­ously than foot­ball, but cricket was scrapped in 1972 and it is now the home of Sheffield United. The pub is gone.
  • The newly built Ranulph Court., Millhouses – named after the Lord who put up the money to build Beauchief Abbey. This area was also a hold­ing area for trams that had car­ried pleas­ure seekers to Millhouses park
  • Roads with setts (cubes of gran­ite) and cobbles (roun­ded)
  • The elab­or­ate Gas Light built by the Duke of Norfolk out­side his park – obvi­ously not built by the Council!
  • The Georgian ‘Bankers House’ in Campo Lane which was on the out­skirts of the town when built in 1728 and was a sign of the start of an edu­cated middle class and the demise of the feudal lords system.
  • Red Post Boxes – (Cannon Iron Works Falkirk is writ­ten on each one) – The 1st iron works in Scotland was set up by John Roebuck from Meersbrook House (built by a banker), when the Meers Brook was the county bound­ary. Roebuck was a chem­ist & whose part­ner was James Watt. James Watt even­tu­ally joined up with Matthew Bolton to make the steam engine.
  • Two gate­keep­ers lodges (look­ing like toll houses) for the gated com­munity of Collegiate Crescent.
  • A pack­horse bridge near Rails Rd. in the Rivelin Valley.
  • In Savile St – there is a sign on a post with the insignia ‘’Court 12 o’clock’’. This was the site of a public clock which was always broken, so it was fixed to read 12 o’clock at all times.
  • Devonshire Green – The former site of Wolstenholme’s IXL cut­lery. The owner was respons­ible for the treelined aven­ues of Nether Edge after seeing them in Boston USA
  • A depot for Sheffield horse-drawn trams, but 1899 saw the 1st Electric tram. It sub­sequently became a depot for the bin lor­ries, then apart­ments. We used to build our own trams & rails!!
  • The Pub ‘The Tramway’ built to com­mem­or­ate the tram, now gone.
  • The Steps on London Rd. near Homebase were installed in 1902 – This was the tram ter­minus, but it soon moved fur­ther out to Abbey Rd/Graves Park area, leav­ing the steps little used.
  • Meadowhead was ori­gin­ally at the junc­tion of Abbey Lane & Chesterfield Rd. as the mead­ows star­ted here. These mead­ows were sub­sequently built on, so the present Meadowhead moved, to reflect the new pos­i­tion of the open mead­ows.

The last slide was a reminder of the fant­astic coun­tryside on our door­step.

A walk around the Sheffield area won’t be the same again.

A most enjoy­able morn­ing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mary Queen of Scots Revisited – David Templeman – 21st May 2018

David, a reg­u­lar speaker at our Probus, is an Elizabethan Historian, a nation­ally known speaker and Chair of The Friends of Sheffield Manor Lodge.

He became a guide at Manor Lodge in 2004, at which time he could find only a single chapter to read about Mary Queen of Scots and her 19 years of cap­tiv­ity in the Sheffield area. David chose to talk to us about this period of cap­tiv­ity, which he has since researched and writ­ten about in his new book “Mary Queen of Scots – The Captive Queen in England, 1568–87,’’ and which has been 12 years in the making.

Mary, born in 1542, became the right­ful Queen of Scotland when very young. She was a cousin of Queen Elizabeth I, both being related to Henry VIII. But Mary, the daugh­ter of the Scottish King James V, was a Catholic, and Queen Elizabeth of England was a Protestant.

Protestants gained con­trol of Scotland during Mary’s youth, so she escaped to France but returned to Scotland to reign in 1561, at the age of 18. Still a Catholic, she reigned as Queen and had a son James with her first hus­band, Lord Darnley.

This mar­riage and the sub­sequent one were con­tro­ver­sial and dis­astrous, neither of which had been sanc­tioned by Elizabeth as pro­tocol deman­ded. Mary’s right to reign was even­tu­ally chal­lenged and she ended up in a Scottish prison.

However, she escaped and sailed for England, land­ing at Workington on 16th May 1568 against all advice, and totally unan­nounced, in the hope that Elizabeth would help her to regain her Scottish throne as she had once pre­vi­ously prom­ised.

But Elizabeth now had a prob­lem with a Catholic Queen on Protestant English soil. Initially, Mary was held in Carlisle Castle, but within three or four months she was moved south to Bolton Castle in Wensleydale, away from the coast and the Scottish border for secur­ity. Elizabeth had con­cluded that she was a threat to her throne and could become a Catholic ral­ly­ing point for English revolts, or inva­sions from Spain, France or Scotland. For that reason, she could not release her and needed to keep her in the easi­est place to defend, should there be an attempt to rescue her.

To begin with, a con­fer­ence in York was con­vened to estab­lish the facts about her mar­riages, with a view to resolv­ing her pos­i­tion in Scotland, but this was incon­clus­ive. Mary was then moved fur­ther south, and fur­ther from the sea, to secure places cent­ring on Sheffield. The sixth Earl of Shrewsbury, at his own cost, was engaged by Elizabeth to be Mary’s ‘jailer.’ The main loc­a­tions used to hold Mary over the next 19 years were, Tutbury Castle, Wingfield Manor, Worksop Manor, Chatsworth, Sheffield Castle, and Sheffield Manor Lodge. The Earl’s wife, Bess of Hardwick Hall and Chatsworth, was a friend of Elizabeth and helped to look after Mary, as well as keep an eye on her.

Some of the places were unhealthy, so Marys’ health deteri­or­ated, even though she was per­mit­ted occa­sion­ally to take the waters at Buxton, when she stayed at what is now the Old Hall Hotel.

So we had Mary, on the one hand, involved in intrigues and plots, and Elizabeth, on the other, impris­on­ing Mary and thwart­ing any Catholic plots to under­mine her, or the estab­lished Protestant faith. Sir Francis Walsingham, the spy­mas­ter, and Sir William Cecil, Elizabeth’s main advisor, were strong advoc­ates for execut­ing Mary, to solve the prob­lem. However, mon­archs believe that they are chosen by God to reign, so Elizabeth couldn’t bring her­self to sign the death war­rant of another mon­arch.

The Duke of Norfolk, one of the most influ­en­tial per­sons in England, and a Catholic, plot­ted to marry Mary and take over the throne. He was even­tu­ally executed for treason, with Elizabeth sign­ing the death war­rant. A revolt (the only one during Elizabeth’s reign) came from the Northern earls in the Catholic North of England, but this petered out. Of the lead­ers, Northumberland was tracked down. Reprisals in the North, by Elizabeth’s army, were ruth­less, to dis­cour­age any other revolts. The other leader, Charles Neville, escaped to Spain but had all his prop­erty con­fis­cated.

Three attempts were made to escape from the Earl of Shrewsbury’s prop­er­ties and four attempts were made from Sheffield Castle. But there were spies every­where, who dis­covered all the plots, which came to noth­ing.

Relationships slowly deteri­or­ated between all the parties involved in Mary’s deten­tion. The Earl’s mar­riage fell apart as well as his health and fin­ances, and Mary’s health suffered because of the con­di­tions under which she was held. From being a sporty person used to hunt­ing, fal­conry, arch­ery and real tennis, her move­ments became very restric­ted as plots to rescue her came and went. So she spent her time doing embroid­ery, which is now on exhib­i­tion in Oxford, Norfolk and Edinburgh.

Finally, one of the plots — in which it was proved that Mary was implic­ated — was deemed to be treas­on­ous, so even­tu­ally Elizabeth reluct­antly signed Marys’ death war­rant and at the age of 44 she was executed. She died for her faith at Fotheringhay Castle. Elizabeth was said to have ‘won’ in life, but ‘lost’ in death, as iron­ic­ally, James VI of Scotland, Mary’s son, who was a Protestant, also became James I of England when Elizabeth died. This was the first time both coun­tries had had the same mon­arch.

We learnt that there is a film being made at a cost of £180m on this sub­ject, which is due to be released in January 2019. It was a very enlight­en­ing and enjoy­able hour. For more inform­a­tion, David’s book gives it all.

Secrets to Reducing Aches and Pains as we Age (A Physiotherapists Perspective) — John Wood — 11th December 2017

John, ori­gin­ally from Canterbury, trained in Bradford, came to Sheffield to work in the Northern General, and since 1998, has been self-employed, as the Clinical Director of ‘Sheffield Physiotherapy’ on Ecclesall Rd. Acupuncture is also car­ried out at the prac­tice.

Johns descrip­tion of the aches and pains which he routinely treats, res­on­ated with the mem­bers. What fol­lowed were his ‘Secrets’ to help us to ease these prob­lems.

Secret 1

Physiotherapy is a heal­ing pro­cess,  which is built up over time, not an event. It is a rehab­il­it­a­tion, which is pro­gress­ive, and tre­mend­ously power­ful.    So, don’t let prob­lems creep up on you because you are too busy with life.

The solu­tion is to do daily exer­cises on the prob­lem joints or muscles, but don’t do too much too soon and not enough later. Do a bit each day. Action and stim­u­la­tion is needed.

Use it or lose it!

Secret 2

X-rays or MRI Scans don’t pick up pain, which could be coming from a muscle prob­lem, rather than the nervous system or other parts of the body.

Secret 3

Older people tend to use the wrong muscles, the wrong way with poor pos­tures. Shoulders for­ward, stom­ach out, and straight lumber regions. The solu­tion is to envis­age a cord from the top of your head pulling you upright with shoulders back and stom­ach in. Exercise  every day for 3 to 4 weeks to loosen and strengthen all muscles, includ­ing back and neck. The exer­cise will then become a routine.

Secret 4

If we have pain in a knee for example, we tend to stop doing the things we were doing. This is then a slip­pery slope as we deteri­or­ate, put on weight, and go from bad to worse. A vicious cycle should be replaced with a vir­tu­ous cycle. Don’t leave the prob­lem for years, treat the prob­lem now!

Secret 5

Get to the cause of any prob­lem. This is good physio­ther­apy.    When we age, the muscles get shorter and tighter, so we need to loosen up. The body works as one with every muscle depend­ing on every other. Strengthening the weak ones will help all the others; but beware! Doing the wrong exer­cises, espe­cially if you go to a gym­nas­ium and prac­tice anec­dotal or D.I.Y. the­or­ies, advice is needed on the appro­pri­ate suit­able type.

Mechanical energy is used in modern physio­ther­apy on joints and tis­sues such as, I.D.D. Therapy (Intervertebral Differential Dynamics), which involves being strapped to a machine which can twist and flex each ver­teb­ral joint in turn to loosen them.   Theraflex is another tech­nique involving a hand held pulsat­ing device to flex joints in turn.  VIPP (Very Intense Pressure Pulse) Shockwave involves a 25,000V nano­second dur­a­tion shock­wave to activ­ate recov­ery.    Ultrasound  is also used to dis­sip­ate bruises and activ­ate cells to repair them­selves. (UV used to be used to do the same thing).

Bonus Secret 6

Remember, you don’t have a body, you are a body! Human inter­ac­tion is import­ant to us. Use whatever method suits you to ease your pain – mas­sage, physio­ther­apy, yoga, pil­ates….. but remem­ber, the ther­ap­ist is as import­ant as the ther­apy.

Johns’ ver­dict:

Why  should we look after ourselves? — Because we’re worth it!!”

A very encour­aging note on which to end a very enjoy­able and salut­ary talk.

 

 

 

 

The Silver Screen — Mike Gildersleeve — 9th October 2017.

Mike Gildersleeve, a reg­u­lar vis­itor to our Probus, was brought up in Wembley in the 1950s, in a house with no Mod. Cons., but, they had a ‘wire­less’, then a Radiogram (ini­tially wind-up gramo­phone) and also they were within easy access of 24 cinemas, all now closed.

In 1950 there were only 300,000 TVs in the UK, so Mike reminded us of how he listened to The Goons, Dick Barton, Educating Archey, the Archers, and 78s of Mario Lanza…..

1953 was the water­shed for the TV revolu­tion, with the Coronation of Elizabeth II. Then came Muffin the Mule, the Flowerpot Men, ….. , etc, but the cinemas con­tin­ued to com­pete ever­more vig­or­ously, trying to under­mine the advance of TV.

In the USA in the early 1950s there were many more TVs in peoples’ homes, than in the UK, as they were not so affected by the cost WW2, but the chan­nels were always com­mer­cially influ­enced, with the advert­isers decid­ing what pro­grammes would be put on, to ensure the watch­ers didn’t switch off. The pro­grammes also were strictly cen­sored on sub­jects such as race, sex, viol­ence, drugs, reli­gion, and lan­guage etc.

However, films at the cinema tackled these taboo sub­jects, and cre­ated, bigger and bigger screens and better and better pro­duc­tions and present­a­tions, with Cinemascope, Technicolor and  Toddao, a really big screen inven­ted by Mike Todd, who was mar­ried to Liz Taylor.

Mike Todd made the most watched film ever, ‘Around the World in 80 Days’ with David Niven and Robert Newton, who died 2 weeks after film was compled due to alco­hol­ism. Other films tack­ling the taboos were ‘The Robe’ by 20th Century Fox, star­ring Jean Simmons, Victor Mature and Richard Burton. Other not­able films were ‘The Birdman of Alcatraz’ (Burt Lancaster), ’12 Angry Men’ (Henry Fonda), and films with Frank Sinatra, Bill Haley, Glenn Ford, Tony Curtis and Sidney Poitier, tack­ling race issues, booze, rock and roll and drugs.

James Stewart and Jeff Chandler were in a film which depic­ted the Indian not being the baddie for the first time. Up to that point they had always been the vil­lains.

Although 1957 saw the first decline in num­bers of cinem­a­goers, cinema held its own until Howard Hughes, who owned RKO Radio Pictures, sold all his lib­rary of RKO films to TV. Up to that point, the only films on TV had been films spe­cific­ally made for TV. The film stars in the cinema at that time were con­trac­ted to one studio, (hence the 24 stars around the ‘Paramount’ trade mark, they rep­res­en­ted the 24 stars on con­tract), and so they did not appear on TV, until Howard Hughes let the genie out of the bottle.

All the big stu­dios of the time (MGM, Universal, Warner, United Artists, Columbia, RKO) have today morphed into other group­ings.

The biggest British studio at the time was J. Arthur Rank with the famous Bombardier Billy Wells on the  papier-mâché gong. Ealing Studios became syn­onym­ous with comedy and actors like Peter Sellars.  Pinewood Studios was built by Charles Boot, the father of Henry Boot of civil engin­eer­ing fame. They made ‘The Lady-killers’ and ‘I’m alright Jack’ amongst other not­able films.

The 1950s was also the golden era of cinema music­als like ‘Oklahoma’, ‘Singing in the Rain’, and ‘7 Brides for 7 Brothers’. War films and cowboy films aboun­ded. ‘Bridge over the River Kwai’ (Alec Guinness), ‘The Dam Busters’ and‘Reach for the Sky’ (Kenneth More), ‘High Noon’ (Gary Cooper and Grace Kelly who was everybody’s friend, except James Stewart).  ‘The Ten Commandments’ was the only film not to dis­play ‘The End’, but fin­ished by, ‘So it was writ­ten, so it shall be done’. ‘Ben Hur’ (Charlton Heston) was an epic film which cost $145m, whereas ‘From Here To Eternity’ cost $1m and was made in 6 weeks.

Mike then took us down memory lane, men­tion­ing a whole host of actors and act­resses who appeared on the cinema screen.   Marilyn Monroe in ‘Some Like It Hot’ with the immor­tal last line, “No one is per­fect.”) who died in1961.  Jack Hawkins who fought in WW2 and appeared in ‘The Cruel Sea’.  Dirk Bogarde who ori­gin­ally appeared with Jack Warner (Evenin’ All).  Norman Wisdom who was Knighted at 90. Maureen O’Hara who was John Wayne’s best friend because she was the only person who could drink him under the table. Montgomery Clift who had a crash, then took to booze and drugs.  Paul Newman, mar­ried to June Woodward, and got the indus­tries rasp­berry (Rassy) award with his first film, but 4 years later began to make hits and sub­sequently gave a lot of money to char­ity. Robert Mitchum who was a crim­inal. Shirley Maclean, still going, and whose brother is Warren Beatty. James Dean who only made 3 films and only ever saw one of them before he died. And many , many others……

Mike had to be stopped when he ran out of time. We hadn’t noticed.

 

The Importance of Woodland – Past, Present & Future – Gerald Price – 31st July 2017

The Woodland Trust was formed in 1972 as a char­it­able trust. They now own 1,200 woods cov­er­ing approx­im­ately 75 sqare miles through­out the British Isles, and also work with landown­ers who own their own woods.

With around 300 employ­ees, 300,000 mem­bers and many volun­teers, they are fin­anced equally by legacies, mem­ber­ship, grants, full-time fun­draisers and spon­sors such as Sainsburys, WH Smith and IKEA.

Woodlands are defined as trees, hedges, park­land with trees in them, and any other clusters, copses or clumps of trees. Twelve and a half per cent of the land­scape in Britain is wood­land, and the aim is to reach 25 per cent. Notably, London has 20 per cent wood­land and there are 50 woods within 10 miles of Sheffield.

Trees live the longest of all living things and are the tallest. They are between 20 and 25 per cent carbon, so absorb CO2 from the atmo­sphere and emit O2, as well as provid­ing an essen­tial biod­i­verse hab­itat for 50 per cent of all wild life.

In the canopy of trees, for safety, there are rap­tors, but­ter­flies such as purple emperor and hair­streaks, bats and other creatures. Lower down there are garden birds, other but­ter­flies and mam­mals, while on the ground are mam­mals and flora. In the ground, fungi have a sym­bi­otic arrange­ment with the roots of trees. The roots also hold the soil, aid water per­col­a­tion and take up water, help­ing to pre­vent flood­ing.

Past ancient wood­lands tend to be where plough­ing was dif­fi­cult, so biod­iversity in the wood­land has had time to develop and there­fore con­tains the rarer spe­cies of flora & fauna.

Ancient wood­lands of native spe­cies have been cop­piced for hun­dreds of years, for char­coal, which was needed in steel­mak­ing. They have also been cop­piced for white coal (wood dried, then charred), which was needed for lead smelt­ing, as it burns at a lower tem­per­at­ure. The cop­picing was rotated in a wood and over­seen by a wood ward, who was an import­ant man.

Present object­ives of the Woodland Trust are:

1. Protection — Promoting tree man­age­ment and trying to link up ancient bits, when think­ing of buying. This cre­ates cor­ridors for mam­mals.

2. Restoration – For example, repla­cing pine woods (which were planted after WW1 by the newly formed Forestry Commission to provide wood for com­mer­cial use, and are dark and unat­tract­ive to the flora and fauna) with woods of oak and native spe­cies, which are light, airy and more biod­i­verse, attract­ing flora & fauna.

3. Creation – Planting new trees by donat­ing young sap­lings to com­munit­ies, and work­ing with the com­munit­ies to plant on any bits of public land that cannot be used for any­thing else.

4. Control of pests and dis­eases – There are 19 threats at present, includ­ing dis­eased chest­nut trees and ash die-back. It is likely we will lose all our ash trees which is the second most pop­u­lous tree.

Future object­ives are described in the Woodland Trust’s new ‘Charter for Trees, Woods & People’ which will be launched on 7th November 2017, which is the 800th anniversary of the ‘Charter of the Forest’ in 1217 (around the time of the Magna Carta) which recog­nised that the peas­ants had rights over the woods too.

Some 70,000 sig­na­tures of sup­port for the new charter have been col­lec­ted to date, and 100,000 is the target.

The 10 object­ives are:

1. Thriving hab­it­ats for diverse spe­cies
2. Planting for the future
3. Celebrating the cul­tural impact of trees
4. Thriving forestry sector that deliv­ers for the UK
5. Better pro­tec­tion for import­ant trees & woods (TPOs)
6. Enhancing new devel­op­ments with trees
7. Understanding and using the nat­ural health bene­fits of trees
8. Access to trees for every­one, with paths
9. Addressing threats to trees and woods through good man­age­ment
10. Strengthening land­scapes with woods and trees

The Woodland Trust are doing essen­tial and very valu­able work to main­tain and improve our wood­lands an d envir­on­ment for the bene­fit of all.

Gerald gave us an excel­lent present­a­tion, and encour­aged us to sup­port the Woodland Trust and get involved. For fur­ther inform­a­tion see www.woodlandtrust.org.uk