All posts by Graham Snowdon

Wentworth Woodhouse — Wed 20th March 2019

Most of our mem­bers had read Catherine Bailey’s fas­cin­at­ing book Black Diamonds, the Rise and Fall of an English Dynasty, which maps the his­tory of coal mining in South Yorkshire and the down­fall of the Fitzwilliam family.

So it was with great anti­cip­a­tion that we gathered at Wentworth Woodhouse — formerly Britain’s largest private res­id­ence, with a 606-foot front­age — for a guided tour by the excel­lent volun­teers of the Wentworth Woodhouse Preservation Trust.

It was our first out­side visit of the year and one of the most pop­u­lar ever, with a party of 52 mem­bers and their part­ners arriv­ing in glor­i­ous sun­shine on the spring equi­nox for what turned out to be a 90-minute tour of just some of the more import­ant formal rooms in two sep­ar­ate groups.

The Georgian mas­ter­piece of Wentworth Woodhouse, largely hidden from public view on the edge of the vil­lage of Wentworth, boasts an east front wider than that of Buckingham Palace and in its heyday provided employ­ment for 1,000 local people main­tain­ing its reputed 365 rooms and sur­round­ing estate.

A member of staff work­ing on the res­tor­a­tion of a statue.

The Grade I listed coun­try house was bought for the rel­at­ively knock­down price of £7 mil­lion by the Trust, which aims to restore it to its former glory at a cost of up to £200 mil­lion, with assist­ance from the National Trust who are cur­rently paying the wages of the full-time staff. Scaffolding alone, which shrouded much of the famous façade on the day of our visit, is cost­ing £1 mil­lion.

Ongoing work on the East Front, as seen from the inside.

The house has 250,000 square feet of floor space and covers an area of more than two and a half acres, sur­roun­ded by 180 acres of park­land and an estate of 15,000 acres.

The ori­ginal Jacobean house was rebuilt by Thomas Watson-Wentworth, the first Marquess of Rockingham (1693–1750), and vastly expan­ded by his son, the second mar­quess, who was twice Prime Minister. In the 18th cen­tury, the house was inher­ited by the Earls Fitzwilliam who owned it until 1979 when it passed to the heirs of the eighth and tenth earls, its value having being boos­ted by the vast quant­it­ies of coal dis­covered on the estate.

However, this turned out to be a double edged sword. Following nation­al­isa­tion of the coal industry on New Year’s Day 1947, Manny Shinwell, the Minister of Fuel and Power in the Labour gov­ern­ment, ordered that the formal park­land in front of the house be sac­ri­ficed to open­cast coal mining, and the work­ings exten­ded right up to the front door of the house. Controversially, Shinwell insisted that the coal be obtained ‘at all costs’ in the interest of Britain’s post­war indus­trial drive, des­pite the pres­id­ent of the Yorkshire Mineworkers’ Association claim­ing that it amoun­ted to van­dal­ism.

A con­tem­por­ary news­pa­per pho­to­graph show­ing what the pres­id­ent of the Yorkshire Mineworkers’ Association described as the ‘van­dal­ism’ of the lawn in front of the house.

Although the grand east front of the house is the best known and the most illus­trated, it was the west front fin­ished in 1734 which was inten­ded to be for the family’s private enjoy­ment rather than the impress­ive east front which demon­strated their social and polit­ical ambi­tions.

Wentworth Woodhouse actu­ally com­prises two joined houses. The west front, with the gar­dens facing north west towards the vil­lage, was built of brick with stone detail. The grander east front is said to have been built as a result of rivalry between two branches of the family. The Stainborough branch of the Wentworth family inher­ited the Earl of Strafford’s minor title of Baron Raby but not his estates, which went to Thomas Watson (who added Wentworth to his sur­name). The Stainborough Wentworths, for whom the Strafford earl­dom was revived, lived at nearby Wentworth Castle.

 

 

 

 

 

 

We roun­ded off our morn­ing visit with lunch at either the Rockingham Arms or George & Dragon pubs in Wentworth vil­lage.

 

Britain & Germany: The War at Sea 1914–18, Part II — Peter Stubbs — 18th March 2019

We all knew how it would finish, of course, but Peter Stubbs kept us enthralled to the very end of the second part of his talk on the War at Sea, 1914 to 1918.

Peter briefly recapped on his pre­vi­ous week’s talk, when we left the British Navy and the British public in good spir­its fol­low­ing the anni­hil­a­tion of Von Spee’s squad­ron in the South Atlantic in December 1914. “Britannia ruled the waves again, but not for long,” he told us.

Only eight days later, at 9am on December 16 and without any warn­ing whatever, high explos­ive shells smashed into houses, shops and other prop­er­ties in Scarborough, Whitby and Hartlepool.”

Admiral Franz Hipper had man­aged to leave har­bour in Germany and cross the North Sea undetec­ted. The British Admiralty had cracked German naval codes and warned the fleet of the Germany move­ment, but Admiral David Beatty failed to inter­cept either of Hipper’s squad­rons, in part due to poor vis­ib­il­ity in the North Sea and in part to sloppy sig­nalling by his flag officer.

A post-Scarborough recruit­ment poster. 

 

Only Hartlepool could have been said to be a legit­im­ate target with its dock­yard and factor­ies. In all 86 people were killed and 443 injured. Worst hit were the Bennett family in Wykeham Street, Scarborough. Of seven family mem­bers, four were killed.

The British public was out­raged. How could the largest and most power­ful navy in the world have failed to pro­tect them? But it was also a pro­pa­ganda coup for Britain. Recruiting in the army and navy shot up, helped by dra­matic poster advert­ising.

Another recruitmnent poster, show­ing the wrecked house in Wykeham Street, Scarborough.

There was a par­tial response nine days later, on Christmas Day, when Britain inflic­ted the first ever war damage in naval his­tory by air power. Merchant ships had been adap­ted with hangars on deck for sea­planes, with hoists to lift the planes in and out of the water. When the ships got close enough to the German coast seven sea­planes were launched and car­ried out a daring bomb­ing raid on the Zeppelin hangars at Cuxhaven.

Further – and more sig­ni­fic­ant – pay­back came a month later at the Battle of Dogger Bank, when Beatty’s battle cruis­ers con­fron­ted Admiral Hipper, who had led the bom­bard­ment of Scarborough. Hipper came out of his home waters with three battle cruis­ers, three lights cruis­ers and two flo­til­las of des­troy­ers.

The British knew they were coming,” Peter explained. “They had obtained the German naval codes thanks to the bril­liance of code break­ing staff in Room 40 at the Admiralty. Admiral Beatty was aler­ted, and set off south from Rosyth to inter­cept Hipper.” The British ships, all built between 1909 and 1913, were faster than the German oppos­i­tion, and out­gunned them.

Admiral David Beatty — later the first Earl Beatty.

As soon as Hipper’s ship was in range, Beatty sig­nalled to his ships ‘Open fire and engage the enemy.’ It was the first clash between modern battle cruis­ers in the north­ern hemi­sphere.”

Meanwhile, with Britain now at war with Turkey, the Admiralty revis­ited earlier con­tin­gency plans for a joint naval and mil­it­ary attack on the Dardanelles. It was a haz­ard­ous plan. The nar­rows were less than a mile wide and lined with forts and gun emplace­ments, making it impossible for the navy to ‘stand off’ at a dis­tance and attack out of range of the land based guns. There were also mines laid across the straits.

HMS Lion, Admiral Beatty’s flag­ship.

Five allied ships were lost and three badly dam­aged, and in all 700 British and French sail­ors were lost, with noth­ing achieved.

 

Back in the North Sea, both sides con­tin­ued to play cat and mouse, with mixed res­ults. After one par­tic­u­larly bruis­ing encounter, when his flag­ship Lion was hit twice in five minutes, Beatty reportedly said to his officers: “There seems to be some­thing wrong with our bloody ships today. As Peter explained: “He was quite wrong. What he should have said was ‘there seems to be some­thing wrong with our bloody officers today!’”

However, Britain still had com­mand of the seas. A block­ade remained in full force pre­vent­ing much needed sup­plies from reach­ing Germany. The Battle of Jutland in July 1916 was effect­ively the end of the sur­face war.

Admiral Franz Hipper.

But the peril of Germany’s sub­mar­ine fleet was ever present. Relations between Germany and the United States had hit rock bottom with the sink­ing of the Lusitania in May 2015. The Lusitania and her two sister ships were the largest pas­sen­ger liners in the world. Although she nor­mally trav­elled at 25 knots, too fast to be at risk from tor­pedo attack, as she approached the Irish coast she ran into a bank of fog and was forced to reduce speed.

One tor­pedo was suf­fi­cient. It was fol­lowed by a large explo­sion on the ship, prob­ably some of the explos­ives and arma­ments she was allegedly car­ry­ing, and within 18 minutes she had sunk with the loss of 1,200 pas­sen­gers, among them 126 US cit­izens.

The sink­ing did not bring the US into the war, but it had a sig­ni­fic­ant effect on the atti­tude of the US gov­ern­ment and public opin­ion. In Germany, mean­while, the sink­ing was cel­eb­rated and school­chil­dren were given a day’s hol­i­day.

The unres­tric­ted German sub­mar­ine offens­ive which even­tu­ally brought America into the war was ulti­mately defeated by the convoy system, and this reversal along with a lack of land pro­gress on the west­ern front was bring­ing Germany to its knees. But although the sub­mar­ine war had been won, the damage from the U-boat offens­ive was immense; during 51 months of war, German sub­mar­ines had sunk 5,282 British, allied and neut­ral mer­chant ships.

A peace­ful Scapa Flow today — pic­ture by Graham Snowdon.

On 21st November 1918 more than 70 ships of the German High Seas Fleet suffered the ulti­mate humi­li­ation of sur­ren­der­ing to 370 escort­ing ships of the allied navies and being escor­ted to Scapa Flow to be interned there. More than 120 sub­mar­ines were also taken into intern­ment at Harwich. In an ironic twist, seven months later the cap­tured German fleet at Scapa was scuttled by its own crews to avoid the ships being taken into use by the British navy.

Peter con­cluded by telling us: “As we all know, the peace was a rel­at­ively short one last­ing only 20 years. Although appar­ently for­got­ten — or at least little men­tioned — by our modern day politi­cians, the two world wars were the real and most import­ant reason for the set­ting up of the European Community and for coun­tries want­ing to be mem­bers of it. It seems that our politi­cians now think that another European war is impossible.”

What do Councillors do all day? — Cliff Woodcraft — 21st Jan 2019

The title of this talk was in the form of a ques­tion which I could have partly answered before the meet­ing, having watched our Lib Dem coun­cil­lor Cliff Woodcraft trudging round the neigh­bour­hood in all weath­ers, at all hours, deliv­er­ing party polit­ical flyers and news­let­ters.

Whatever your polit­ical per­sua­sion, there could be no doubt­ing this man’s dogged determ­in­a­tion, but of course there is much more to being a coun­cil­lor than doing leaf­let drops.

Cllr Cliff Woodcraft

Cliff has been one of our three Fulwood coun­cil­lors since 2013. With 28 wards, Sheffield City Council is made up of 84 rep­res­ent­at­ives – 53 Labour, 22 Liberal Democrats, six Green Party and three UKIP mem­bers. He is deputy chair of the Children, Young People and Family Support Scrutiny and Policy Development Committee, and also a member of the Licensing Committee, Overview and Scrutiny Management Committee, and Planning and Highways Committee. He has an attend­ance record of 88.5 per cent.

Cliff showed us a photo shoot of him and a group of Lib Dem col­leagues out­side the threatened Broomhill Library, where a passing local voter asked: “Why aren’t you at the coun­cil, debat­ing this?” Cliff explained that only around one day a month was spent in the coun­cil cham­ber at the Town Hall, and most of his time – for which he receives a sti­pend of £11,000 a year – is spent deal­ing with issues in the local com­munity.

Sheffield Town Hall

A full meet­ing of the coun­cil can be split into four cat­egor­ies – peti­tions from the public, ques­tions from the public, ques­tions from coun­cil­lors and debates. If a peti­tion regard­ing a local issue receives 5,000 sig­na­tures or more, it auto­mat­ic­ally qual­i­fies for a half-hour debate. If the busi­ness of the meet­ing over­runs, items coming towards the end of the meet­ing are voted on without being debated.

Sheffield City Council is a big busi­ness, with a budget for 2018–19 of £1,344 mil­lion. Education accounts for £319 mil­lion and adult social care for £229 mil­lion, while the cost of bor­row­ing alone is a stag­ger­ing £43 mil­lion a year, part of that down to the fact that we are still paying for the 1991 World Student Games.

Cliff did not pull his punches when it came to the city’s fin­an­cial affairs, describ­ing the Town Hall exten­sion which was built in 1977 and demol­ished 25 years later as “a waste of money and resources.”

He is proud of Sheffield’s record in keep­ing fam­il­ies together through the efforts of the Children, Young People and Family Support com­mit­tee. “We have a better record than most coun­cils,” he said.

Main coun­cil cham­ber

Day to day mat­ters which the Licensing Committee has to over­see include taxis, alco­hol and late-night enter­tain­ment, street trad­ing, food regis­tra­tion, animal wel­fare, char­ity, gambling and sexual enter­tain­ment. “If there is no objec­tion to a pro­posal, then it will be handled by a case officer, but if there is an objec­tion there would be a coun­cil debate,” he explained.

On Planning and Highways, reas­ons for turn­ing down plan­ning applic­a­tions include over­de­vel­op­ment, lack of park­ing, pri­vacy and poten­tial dis­turb­ance.

Cliff engages with his local voters through meet­ings, can­vassing, sur­veys, let­ters and leaf­lets. He is not a fan of sur­ger­ies – “If people have an issue, they will con­tact us,” he says. “There is no need to wait for a monthly sur­gery. I aim to see people within a couple of days.”

If you take that as an invit­a­tion, Cliff’s con­tact details (and these are all in the public domain) are Cllr Cliff Woodcraft, Sheffield City Council, Town Hall, Pinstone Street, Sheffield S1 2HH. E-mail: cliff.woodcraft@sheffield.gov.uk. Phone: 0114 230 3627.

Clipper Round the World Race — Martin Greenshields — 12th November 2018

 

THE Clipper Race, first held in 1996–97 and the brainchild of solo round-the-world yachts­man Sir Robin Knox-Johnston, is con­tested by 12 identical yachts, each with a pro­fes­sional skip­per but crewed by a com­bined total of 700 ama­teur sail­ors.

Martin Greenshields is very much one of the ama­teurs. Before embark­ing on this 10,000 naut­ical mile adven­ture of a life­time, his sail­ing exper­i­ence, he admit­ted, con­sisted of one after­noon on Carsington Reservoir.

But  bravely under­tak­ing the first two legs of the global chal­lenge — from Liverpool to Punta del Este in Uruguay, and then back across the Atlantic to Cape Town — wasn’t quite as reck­less as it might at first appear. All the ama­teur crews had to embark on four sep­ar­ate weeks of train­ing at Gosport to turn them from novices to com­pet­ent crew mem­bers, learn­ing the basic skills of seaman­ship as well as under­go­ing sea sur­vival courses and ‘man over­board’ train­ing.

Recruits were then alloc­ated places on one or other of the 12 identical 70-foot ves­sels which make up the world’s largest matched fleet of ocean racing yachts. Martin, a retired account­ant who lives on Redmires Road, was accep­ted for the 2017–18 race as a crew member of the Sanya Serenity Coast, skippered by 53-year-old Australian sailor Wendy Tuck, from Sydney.

The boat, which went on to win the over­all race, was sponsored by the Chinese city of Sanya, a hol­i­day des­tin­a­tion on the south­ern tip of Hainan Island.

Clipper 70s are not for the faint-hearted, or the work shy. They are stripped of all lux­ur­ies. Crew must become experts at hand­ling the boat as well as living in a con­fined space, man­aging all their kit and belong­ings as they settle into their new home. We saw dra­matic onboard foot­age of the yachts encoun­ter­ing massive seas, with the hori­zon tilt­ing crazily.

Martin was quot­ing Sir Robin Knox-Johnston when he said: “In a Clipper 70 you have everything you need to sail around the world, and noth­ing you don’t need.”

The open­ing leg from Liverpool to Punta del Este involved 32 days’ sail­ing, with the 22 crew shar­ing a round-the-clock watch system with the days split into five seg­ments. Off watch, crew mem­bers could catch up on their sleep either on deck or in one of the avail­able bunks .

In the Tropics, the tem­per­at­ure down below could reach 40 deg C, so it wasn’t very good for sleep­ing,” Martin explained. Another obstacle to over­come, espe­cially in the early stages, was sea sick­ness, although Martin man­aged to restrict this to one ses­sion.

As the Sanya Serenity Coast reached halfway on the first leg across the Atlantic, Martin wrote in his diary, pub­lished on the race’s web­site: “The last few days have been noisy, with the con­stant trim­ming of the spin­naker as we seek to squeeze every last knot out of the boat. Now we are through the scor­ing gate, we are on course south to the motor­ing cor­ridor, where we are allowed to turn on the motor for 60 hours, but only 60 hours, to get through the dreaded Doldrums. Once through that, which may be a prob­lem as they are very large this year, it is a ‘sprint’ (prob­ably almost two weeks) to the finish.

The crew have agreed that I can do the blog today to ask you a favour. In a feeble attempt to regain some of the many house points lost recently at home, I did remem­ber to buy a present for my wife for our wed­ding anniversary on Monday. However, I forgot to tell her, or any­body else, where I put it. So, if there is any­body read­ing this who knows Penny, could you please tell her it’s on the seat of the car in the garage? Thanks.”

On Day 27 he wrote: “After what seems like many months at sea, we have noted a dis­tinct change in the morale of the crew. This all eman­ates from the inspir­a­tional words of Wendo [skip­per Wendy Tuck].

Early in the leg, her legendary pep talks went along the lines of ‘just don’t break any­thing.’ As the race con­tin­ued we were given strict instruc­tions, ‘drive it like you stole it.’ Now, how­ever, the time has come for the words we all needed to get us through to Punta. ‘Think of the moji­tos, smell the BBQ.’

With these words we powered ahead, the Doldrums far behind us and all the excite­ment of spin­nakers to keep us occu­pied.”

As we approach the final days of what we under­stand is the longest open­ing leg in Clipper Race his­tory, strange things have been hap­pen­ing on the boat. Jan Riley, our victu­aller has revealed that she is on Mother Duty tomor­row, Sunday, and we are to have roast beef.

She has, appar­ently, secreted all the neces­sary ingredi­ents around the boat and will be gath­er­ing them together for this spe­cial meal. The excite­ment amongst the crew is intense par­tic­u­larly as last night we had chicken curry that con­tained both chicken and curry. To top it off we found the spicy mango chut­ney for the first time so the curry depart­ment is firing on all cyl­in­ders at last.”

Applications are now open for the 2019–20 edi­tion of the Clipper Round the World Yacht Race. Please remem­ber to men­tion Stumperlowe Probus Club when sub­mit­ting your entry.

The Causes of the Trojan Wars — Peter Miles — 17th September 2018

Peter’s talk and slide present­a­tion was more a look at Greek myth­o­logy than the Trojan Wars them­selves. In fact, he con­ceded, it is almost cer­tainly a myth that the Trojan Wars ever happened.

The jury is still out on whether there is any his­tor­ical real­ity behind the wars, and if so how much. The ancient Greeks believed that Troy was loc­ated near the Dardanelles, and that the Trojan War was a his­tor­ical event of the 13th or 12th cen­tury BC, but by the mid-19th cen­tury both the war and the city were widely seen as non-historical.

Paris, with the Apple of Discord

However, towards the end of the 19th cen­tury, archae­olo­gists found the remains of a great cit­adel that exis­ted on the west­ern shores of Asia Minor, at what is now Hissarlik in Turkey (the tra­di­tional loc­a­tion of Troy), and which appeared to have been over­run by a great war in around the year 1250 BC. On the basis of excav­a­tions con­duc­ted by the German archae­olo­gist Heinrich Schliemann, this claim is now accep­ted by many schol­ars.

So there may be some truth in the story, but Peter’s point was that — whether the wars are fact or fic­tion — the stor­ies try to explain way of the world, the rela­tion­ship between gods and humans, and the ori­gins and sig­ni­fic­ance of the ancient Greeks’ own cult and ritual prac­tices. Modern schol­ars study the myths in an attempt to shed light on the reli­gious and polit­ical insti­tu­tions of ancient Greece and its civil­isa­tion.

The main source for our know­ledge of the Trojan Wars is Homer’s Iliad, writ­ten in the eighth cen­tury BC, where he recounts 52 days during the final year of the decade-long con­flict. The war star­ted with a quar­rel between the god­desses Hera, Athena and Aphrodite after Eris, the god­dess of strife and dis­cord, gave them a golden apple, some­times known as the Apple of Discord, marked for “the fairest.” Zeus, the sky and thun­der god, sent the god­desses to Paris, son of King Priam and Queen Hecuba of Troy, who judged that Aphrodite was the fairest and should receive the apple.

Paris study­ing Aphrodite, who stands before him naked, while Hera and Athena look on

In exchange Aphrodite made Helen — the most beau­ti­ful of all women and the wife of Menelaus, king of Sparta — fall in love with Paris, who took her to Troy. Agamemnon, king of Mycanae and the brother of Helen’s hus­band Menelaus, led an exped­i­tion of Achaean troops to Troy and besieged the city for ten years because of Paris’s insult. After the deaths of many heroes, includ­ing the Achaeans Achilles and Ajax and the Trojans Hector and Paris, the city fell to the well doc­u­mented ruse of the Trojan Horse.

Peter, from Great Hucklow in Derbyshire, has many strings to his bow includ­ing teach­ing, acting, book pub­lish­ing and glid­ing. Another of his interests is the Willow Foundation, foun­ded by his brother-in-law Bob Wilson, the former Arsenal foot­baller and TV pundit and his wife Megs fol­low­ing the death from cancer of their daugh­ter Anna at the age of 31 in 1998.

Peter’s fee for speak­ing to us has been passed on to the Willow Foundation, which raises £2.5 mil­lion a year to provide up to 1,400 ‘spe­cial days’ for young people between the ages of 16 and 40 who are suf­fer­ing from life-threatening ill­nesses.

 

 

Drax Power Station — Wed 5th Sept 2018

On a good day, the 12 cool­ing towers and 851-foot main chim­ney of Drax Power Station are a famil­iar site on the hori­zon from the uplands to the west of Sheffield, 35 miles away as the crow flies.

But 28 mem­bers and guests of Stumperlowe Probus Club were afforded a much closer look at Britain’s largest power gen­er­at­ing facil­ity with a three-hour visit during which we learnt much about Drax’s trans­ition from a coal-powered sta­tion, when it was the UK’s largest emit­ter of carbon diox­ide, to a much greener future which could even­tu­ally see it pro­du­cing ‘carbon neg­at­ive’ elec­tri­city, taking more carbon diox­ide from the atmo­sphere than it pro­duces.

In 2003, Drax took its first steps away from fossil fuel, which had defined elec­tri­city gen­er­a­tion for more than a cen­tury, and began the trans­fer to bio­mass fuel as a renew­able altern­at­ive to coal.

Fifteen years later, three of the station’s six gen­er­at­ing units now run entirely on com­pressed wood pel­lets, mostly impor­ted from respons­ibly man­aged work­ing forests in the United States and Canada, while coal has been releg­ated to a sup­port­ing role to cover spikes in demand and main­tain the sta­bil­ity of the system.

Now Drax has con­ver­ted a fourth unit from coal to bio­mass, which rep­res­ents the passing of a two thirds marker for the power station’s coal-free ambi­tions and rep­res­ents more than 600 mega­watts of renew­able elec­tri­city going into Britain’s national trans­mis­sion system. It is the largest decar­bon­isa­tion pro­ject in Europe. Drax sup­plies six per cent of the country’s elec­tri­city and 11 per cent of its renew­able power.

As well as being an import­ant stra­tegic asset nation­ally, Drax is also vital to the local eco­nomy, employ­ing more than 700 people at the plant and sup­port­ing 3,650 jobs through­out Yorkshire and the Humber. The eco­nomic con­tri­bu­tion to the region stood at £419.2 mil­lion in 2016.

Drax dis­tri­bu­tion ter­min­als are loc­ated at four ports on the east and west coasts of north­ern England – Hull, Newcastle, Immingham and Liverpool — rout­ing fuel from ships for onward deliv­ery into the heart of the sta­tion by rail. A 12,500-ton ship­load of wood pel­lets will keep Drax’s tur­bines oper­at­ing for two and a half days.

Each of the station’s six tur­bines actu­ally con­sist of five sep­ar­ate tur­bines, namely one high pres­sure (HP), one inter­me­di­ate pres­sure (IP) and three low pres­sure (LP). To pro­duce steam, Drax has six boil­ers each weigh­ing 4,000 tonnes. They con­vert energy from bio­mass or coal into steam at the rate of more than four mil­lions pounds in weight per hour inside 300 miles of steel tubing.

The steam tem­per­at­ure of raised to 568 deg C and the pres­sure to 166 bar. The boil­ers oper­ate either con­tinu­ously or on a daily cycle of morn­ing start-up and night shut­down as required by demand, known as ‘two-shifting.’ Exhaust steam from the 140-megawatt high pres­sure tur­bine is returned to the boiler for reheat­ing before being used in the 250mw inter­me­di­ate pres­sure tur­bine at 565 deg C and 40.2 bar. It then passes to the three 90mw low pres­sure tur­bines at 308 deg C and 6.32 bar.

The steam strikes and lifts a series of angled blades moun­ted on the tur­bine shaft, making it rotate at 3,000 rpm (50 cycles a second). The steam then passes to two con­dens­ers and is taken to the 12 cool­ing towers, two for each of the six gen­er­at­ing units.

To gen­er­ate the elec­tri­city, an elec­tro­mag­net on the rotor spins inside a stator (the sta­tion­ary sec­tion) of copper wind­ings, gen­er­at­ing 19,000 amps at 23,500 volts. A trans­former increases the voltage to a mind bog­gling 400,000 volts before send­ing it via cables to the adja­cent National Grid sub-tation for dis­tri­bu­tion into our homes, offices and factor­ies.

After an intro­duc­tion in the ‘learn­ing centre’ where our party was split into three groups and the work­ings of the power gen­er­at­ing pro­cess were explained with sev­eral scale models, we were kitted out in in hi-vis jack­ets, plastic hel­mets and pro­tect­ive eye­wear for an out­door tour of the vast site in elec­tric bug­gies. Inside the build­ings, with the 1,400-foot tur­bine hall as the centrepiece, we were given head­phones to allow us to hear the inform­at­ive com­ment­ary by our guides in the very noisy sur­round­ings.

Our heads were buzz­ing not only with noise but a slight over­load of facts and fig­ures as we peeled off our pro­tect­ive layers and climbed back into the com­fort of our coach for the jour­ney home to Sheffield via a lunch­time stop at the Brewer’s Arms in Snaith to round off a most enjoy­able day.