All posts by Glyn Davies

Crime and Punishment — Through the Ages. Chris Dorries  4th November 2019

Chris said that he would cover the period from 1066 to 1820.

Around 1066 there was a phrase ‘Raising the hue and cry’. If a body was found the local sher­iff or cor­oner was informed by a yodel from tree to tree in the area — the person who found the body was leg­ally respons­ible to ‘raise the hue and cry’.  Then the cor­oner would ride out with two men and gather all the local men to make a ‘jury‘, who had to prove that the dead man belonged to the vil­lage.  If they could not do so the assump­tion was that he was a Norman occu­pier and this was now a very ser­i­ous case.

Some types of trial  were quite severe — if you were sus­pec­ted of theft you had to swear you had not com­mit­ted the offence, but you had to plunge your arm into a pot of boil­ing water to remove a stone from the bottom of the pot.    If you did not get scal­ded you were inno­cent!

Another method was to press the suspect’s body with weights, like cartwheels or rocks, to make them con­fess.  If he, or she, was found guilty they could lose all their prop­erty, but if they did not con­fess they would very likely die.

Other crimes were decided by trial by ordeal, but this was replaced by the Catholic Church with ‘jury trial’, where local men told what they knew but did not decide guilt.

Much later, from the 12th cen­tury onward, trials were more like our modern trials.  However, the accused had no coun­sel, no rules of evid­ence, con­fes­sions could be extrac­ted by tor­ture, defend­ants could not give sworn evid­ence nor call wit­nesses but could dis­pute wit­nesses.

In 1600 tor­ture was banned and defend­ants could call unsworn wit­nesses. However, in a  16th cen­tury trial, evid­ence from dreams was accep­ted — “I had a dream and I saw him do it in my dream.”

Later pro­sec­u­tion by the Crown to prove guilt was intro­duced and the accused could exam­ine wit­nesses but not give sworn evid­ence.  Felonies now res­ul­ted in all the guilty person’s prop­er­ties going to the Crown.  All thefts were hangable offences unless the value of the stolen prop­erty was less than one shil­ling.

Public hangings, i.e. humi­li­ation fol­lowed by a pain­ful death, were accep­ted and the hang­man could make it a quick or slow death.  Women were burnt at the stake (and some­times the hang­man would strangle them before they were burnt).

Hanging, draw­ing and quar­ter­ing was a reli­gious idea because it was believed that you could not be resur­rec­ted if your body was not com­plete.  The accused would be slowly choked on a rope, taken down and the bowels drawn out, then the body would be cut into four pieces which were put onto spikes at the town gates.

If you were accused but you could prove you were in holy orders you could claim ‘bene­fit of clergy’.  This meant that you would instead be tried by the Church (and often would be found not guilty!).  The abil­ity to read often was accep­ted as proof that you were a priest.  However, you might be branded, so if you were arres­ted again you could not claim bene­fit of clergy .

Sometimes, if a member of the nobil­ity was found guilty he would be decap­it­ated, because this was less humi­li­at­ing than being hung, drawn and quartered. Sometimes the guilty would be trans­por­ted instead of hanged.

By 1800 there were over 200 felon­ies where the pun­ish­ment was hanging, one of which was imper­son­at­ing a Chelsea Pensioner!

This was a grue­some talk which made me glad that we no longer have public flog­gings, pil­lor­ies, stocks, duck­ing stools, burn­ing at the stake, decap­it­a­tions and public hangings.

Old England was a bloodthirsty place!

Things are going downhill fast: understanding massive landslides. Prof. Dave Petley. 7th Oct 2019

Dave told us that a land­slide occurs when a slope col­lapses.  He showed us a pic­ture of a huge land­slide in New Zealand which left two cows and a calf marooned on an untouched meadow that was sur­roun­ded by land­slide debris.  Sometimes there is no obvi­ous reason that one sec­tion of a slope col­lapses but other parts are stable.

There are dif­fer­ent types of slide and dif­fer­ent scales of slide.

In Alaska a moun­tain slide slid 15 km across a gla­cier, but in a cliff fall in Staithes a block about the size of a coffee cup hit a girl on the beach and killed her.

Probably the land­slide that most people know about was the dis­aster at Aberfan in 1966.

The spoil tip, loc­ated above the town, col­lapsed and slid down into the school and killed 118 people in there.  He said that this was a shame­ful event, because the spoil could have been taken away but the tip was situ­ated where it was because that was the cheapest place to put it.  The Coal Board did remove it later, but it took money raised from the public appeal for the town to pay for the removal.

Sometimes land­slides have reached the sea and caused tsuna­mis and three massive slides in Brazil in 2019 killed 400 people as the slide front became chaotic.

There are five key pro­cesses involved in land­slides.

1/         The role of water.

Friction is a key con­trol.  Water cre­ates buoy­ancy and reduces fric­tion.

2/         Liquefaction.

As earth mater­i­als deform they go from solid to fluid and the block picks up          mater­ial and speeds up.

(Dave showed a pic­ture of a car half-buried in a road in Alaska, 2018.  He said      that the embank­ment found­a­tions lique­fied as the slope slipped.)

3/         Rocks with defects are much weaker that those without defects.

Multiple hori­zontal defects or cracks are more likely to fail.

4/         Earthquakes in moun­tains gen­er­ate many slope fail­ures.  Nepal has mul­tiple            slides.

5/         We don’t under­stand why the biggest slides travel so far and so fast.

The slides are fre­quent in spring­time when snow and ice melts.

They are very chaotic, they slide far and then con­tinue to creep.  We don’t know   why they become chaotic and break up in to much smal­ler particles and ’liquefy’.

These con­di­tions cannot be sim­u­lated in the labor­at­ory.

Big rock falls are not under­stood.

Landslides are often part of a highly com­plex chain of events.

A land­slide in Sulawesi in 2018 was prob­ably caused by an earth­quake and pos­sibly irrig­a­tion con­trib­uted.

In the north of India, as the con­tin­ent travels north­wards on the tec­tonic plate push­ing up the Himalayas, earth­quakes are caused.  Dave showed satel­lite photos on which the fault line and fault rup­tures were shown.  The are stretched for over 200 km.  These faults cause earth­quake waves.

He showed photos of an area along this 200km fault line where he said 40 — 50% of the land­scape had slipped.  In one place the moun­tain had slipped and flowed down the valley.  More that a cubic kilo­metre (i.e. 2.5 bil­lion tons) of mater­ial blocked the valley, 500metres deep.

In 2007, in a panda con­ser­va­tion area in China, an earth­quake and land­slide caused great damage to Beichuan town.  Dave showed a pic­ture of a crane that had the arm that holds the coun­ter­weight bent upwards.  The crane had been jolted as it dropped over 6.5 metres in the earth­quake. The land­slide and buried Beichuan Middle School, killing 700 people.  The school was a primary and sec­ond­ary school so all the school-age chil­dren in the town were in it at the time.  As Chinese par­ents were allowed to have only one child this was a major cata­strophe. 10 minutes later a whole hill slid down, bull­doz­ing build­ings and caus­ing a massive loss of life

In 2005 in Kashmir a land­slide killed 600 people.  Two women, who were cut­ting grass at the top of the slope, were on an unbroken mass of mater­ial which slid down.  The women ‘surfed’ over 2.5 km on the land­slide and sur­vived.

The chaotic mass blocked the valley and a lake built up behind the dam.  As water loosens the mater­ial the dam could col­lapse at any time, so the Army evac­u­ated all the 1 mil­lion people who lived there until they could drain the dam.

A ques­tion was asked about ava­lanches, which are much easier to pre­dict and there­fore could be stud­ied in more detail than land­slides.  Dave said that they were sim­ilar but dif­fer­ent because the mater­i­als in an ava­lanche were snow, ice and water so much less fric­tion that in a land­slide, and as the solid mater­i­als slid they melted and the water made them even more fric­tion­less.

This was a very inter­est­ing talk that was well illus­trated with slides and a video.

If you want to know more about land­slides Dave has a blog:

https://blogs.agu.org/landslidesblog/

The Fraud Awareness Roadshow.  Andy Foster 5th August 2019

Andy Foster is the Fraud PROTECT Officer work­ing in the Financial Crimes Investigation Unit of South Yorkshire Police.

His dual role is to sup­port vul­ner­able vic­tims of fraud and to work with other sup­port groups.

He also does road shows and other events to bring fraud­u­lent scams to public notice.

Operation Signature’ is the S.Y. police’s cam­paign to help sup­port vic­tims of fraud.

He began by show­ing a slide of facts about fraud, but there were so many I could not  note them all!

However:

  • Men lose 3 times more money than women.
  • Loneliness makes (par­tic­u­larly eld­erly) people vul­ner­able to fraud.
  • Only 5% of defrauded people make a report.
  • In some cases defrauded people have con­sidered, attemp­ted or com­mit­ted sui­cide.
  • 79% of house­hold waste con­tains items that could con­trib­ute to iden­tity theft.
  • Fraud costs people in the U.K. bil­lions of pounds annu­ally.
  • Once anyone is caught by a scam­mer they go on a ‘sucker list’ which is sold to other scam­mers who will inund­ate the ‘sucker’ with more frauds.

Action Fraud is a body that accepts reports about scams from vic­tims.

However, they have about 700,000 calls per year and simply register each call.

They do not invest­ig­ate crimes but send details to the National Fraud Intelligence Centre.

The NFIC decide if there are enough details to take fur­ther action, but on over 80% of reports no action is taken.  This is because crim­in­als are abroad and use phones or emails and there is not enough veri­fi­able detail.

One of the meth­ods fraud­sters use to hide stolen money (so that the banks do not become sus­pi­cious of money going in and out of their accounts) is to approach stu­dents and ask if they can put £5000 into the student’s account for a few days.  They give the stu­dent £100.  The money is soon moved on to another account.

Romance scams.

On dating sites the scam­mer gets the victim to believe they are in love and uses this to extort money.

Social media is used to set up a false pro­file and the scam­mer grooms the  vul­ner­able victim over months or years to scam them.

Telephone scams.

An eld­erly man that Andy met was phoned and per­suaded to invest in shares by paying into an account.  Then he was told that the bank wanted fees that were late.  He said he would not pay because he had not received a dividend.  The scam­mer sent him a £75 ‘dividend’ because he had still £182,000 that he had to invest, but told him that the bank would have to take legal action if he did not pay the fees.

When Andy went to see him about a pos­sibly fraud­u­lent roof repair the man’s stairs were stacked high with unopened mail sent by scam­mers.  Andy removed 17 bin bags full of mail from the house then installed a call blocker phone to keep him safe.  That same day a letter arrived telling the man he

had won £147,000 but to claim it he must send £35 into an enclosed pre-addressed envel­ope to Austria!

Authorised Push Payment Fraud.

This is when you have author­ised pay­ment from your bank.

A 30 year-old man sent £17,000 to his new ‘girl friend’, who lives in Kenya, to help chil­dren with polio.

In 2018 there were 84,624 APP frauds and 78,215 cases of per­sonal account fraud.

Miracle Health Cure Scams.

Calls to eld­erly people to sell health cures.

Other types of fraud were dis­trac­tion burg­lar­ies where someone at the door says they are from the Water Board and need to access the prop­erty.  They get in and steal, and ‘case’ the house so that they can come back later.

Andy gave us advice.

B.T., Sky and TalkTalk have a free call-blocking ser­vice that they will install for you if you con­tact them.

An altern­at­ive is to let all calls go to your answer machine after telling friends and rel­at­ives to always leave a mes­sage for you to call back.  You can then pick up to take the call.  Nearly all scam­mers will hang up when the answer machine cuts in.

Another altern­at­ive is to get a phone that you can pro­gram to block calls.

Probably the most effect­ive method is called ‘trueCall Secure’ which con­nects to your exist­ing phone.  It costs about 120 pounds.

A very inform­at­ive talk, which has aler­ted all of us to be care­ful, and to hang up the phone if we are not sure of the caller’s hon­esty.

Do I know who I am?”  One man’s search for his family. Peter Slater 29th April 2019

Peter has been a sports reporter for BBC radio for many years.

He began by telling us that he was adop­ted at birth.

His adop­tion has led to many ques­tions in pur­suit of his birth family during his life.

In his child­hood he lived in a coun­cil house in Pedmore with his father, Gerald Slater, and his mother.  One day they brought home a baby girl, but she stayed only one day.

(Her mother had decided that she wanted to keep her).

When he was 4 years old he was taken some­where and in a room, which con­tained sev­eral cots, he was told to choose his new baby sister.  He poin­ted at the nearest cot and Suzanne joined the family.  He did not know about his adop­tion.

When he was 6 years old they moved house to Middlesborough, which took him away from his rela­tions and school friends, so he lost touch with uncles and aunts and cous­ins and had to start again.  At times he felt quite isol­ated.

In 1966 when he was 14 he wondered about his ‘nuc­lear’ family.  He was good at or inter­ested in public speak­ing com­pet­i­tions, sport, girls, pop music, etc.  His par­ents were not, so why was he?  His feel­ing of isol­a­tion didn’t decrease when they moved house again and he had to start again making friends.

In 1968 he entered a DJ com­pet­i­tion at a hol­i­day camp and he knew he was going to win.

He had found his way and from then on did Amateur Dramatics, School plays, County Youth Theatre and later, at Sheffield University  where he was read­ing English, he was into Student radio and Politics.

On his 21st birth­day in 1973 his uncle Roger sent him an adop­tion cer­ti­fic­ate which made him real­ise why he was so dif­fer­ent from the rest of his family.  He was adop­ted!!

His birth mother, Freida Kelly, had called him Stanley Kelly.

In 1976 he met his wife-to-be, Alison, and no longer felt isol­ated.  He gradu­ated, and found his first job and knew that this is what he had been born to do, but why?

He mar­ried Alison and they began their own ‘nuc­lear’ family.  He got a job on a local radio sta­tion.  His par­ents moved to Cheltenham.

It was time to find out about Stanley Kelly.

Peter’s birth cer­ti­fic­ate told him that Freda Kelly was a clerk in a bacon dis­trib­ut­ors but he knew noth­ing else.  He got in touch with a social worker called Joe Theaker who found the ori­ginal adop­tion notes.

These notes told him that Freda Kelly was a model, that she went to the National School, that she was Irish, that his father was mar­ried but posed as a single man and that he was Irish.

So Peter is Irish by birth!  He would not find out more about his mother in London — he would have to go to Dublin.

He found cer­ti­fic­ates in Dublin.

His father, Joe Devoy:-  Birth cer­ti­fic­ate, Marriage cer­ti­fic­ate, Death cer­ti­fic­ate, and that he had 6 chil­dren.

Freida:-  just her birth cer­ti­fic­ate and that her par­ents were musi­cians.  He thought she must have emig­rated.  He gave up the search.

A friend, Jim Beglin, said, “Why don’t you put an advert in the Irish Independent and the Dublin Evening News?”  Peter tried this last effort without much hope.

He got a letter from a Mrs. J. Millman Read, saying that she may be able to help him if he explained what he wanted.  He replied, telling her about his search.

He found out that she was his Auntie Joyce but she would not let him meet his mother because Freida was mar­ried and her hus­band did not know about Peter.  However, 2 weeks later he got a letter and pho­to­graph from Freida.

The letter told him that, when she was preg­nant, Joe Devoy dumped her (he was mar­ried with 4 chil­dren).  She went to England, had the child, went back to Dublin, did not get on with her mother (sur­prise!) so went back to England.  There she met Desmond, got preg­nant, was dumped again but kept this child.  She later met a man called Peter and mar­ried him but did not tell him about Stanley in case she was dumped again.

A few weeks later Peter (Slater) met Freida because her hus­band was away work­ing.

In June 1996 he met his mother and had a long chat.  He found out that he had a half-brother called Roy.  He received a letter from Roy and met him, then later at Freida’s 80th birth­day they had a photo taken together.

Both Roy and Freida have passed away but, in 2015, Peter ‘Googled’ Joe Devoy’s wife, found her death notice but also that she was the mother of 9 chil­dren.  He sent an e-mail to the eldest of the sib­lings and got e-mails from Carmel and Maria.  They asked him about his baby teeth  and when he said that the teeth were very poor they said that he def­in­itely was one of the family!

In May 2015 Peter went to Dublin, was met by 5 women waving plac­ards with his name and has met his 4 half-brothers.  DNA tests that are 99% matches show that they are all chil­dren of Joe Devoy and they are happy to wel­come Peter.

This was a very inter­est­ing story, delivered by an expert speaker/presenter.  Full marks!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

From the cradle to the grave?  A personal experience of the NHS” By Barbara Beard. 11th Feb 2019

Barbara first began her talks when she was a member of her U3A Local History Group.

She became par­tic­u­larly inter­ested in the NHS because she was born only two weeks after the “birth” of the NHS on 5th July 1948.

Her par­ents met in the Army and moved to London.  At that time hos­pit­als were run by char­it­ies and, when her mother was preg­nant with her first child she was admit­ted to The Mother’s Hospital, which was run by the Salvation Army.

Later they moved to a top flat in New Cross that had 50 steps up to it.  Her mother had three chil­dren and, to occupy them, took them to Peckham Health Centre.

At the Centre the idea of Doctor Scott Williamson and Doctor James Pearce was that:

Health is a pro­cess that has to be cul­tiv­ated if it is to thrive.  We begin where doc­tors leave off.” 

They were trying to pre­vent ill­nesses rather than cure them by help­ing people to keep as fit as pos­sible.  The whole family had to join the Centre and there they did keep fit and dan­cing ses­sions.  To sur­vive fin­an­cially the Centre needed 3000 fam­il­ies to join but by 1947 had only 500 fam­il­ies paying for mem­ber­ship.  In 1950 the Centre closed for lack of fund­ing and Bevan said that the NHS wasn’t ready to help with fund­ing, although this kind of centre was pos­sibly the germ of the idea the inspired the begin­nings of the NHS.

Barbara’s family moved to Nottingham in 1950.  When she was 8 years old she was admit­ted to hos­pital with ton­sil­litis, where she had a bad exper­i­ence with a bossy nurse, so she hated nurses!  Two years later she was in hos­pital again, but this time had such good care that she decided that she would become a nurse.

In 1967, the ‘Summer of Love’ Barbara became a nurse, although she star­ted in a cohort of 26 nurses and ended with only 8 who stayed the course.  They had a 44 hour week, had to live in the Nurse’s Home, had to be in by 10 pm, no men were allowed, they had to work very hard, and if they mar­ried they had to leave.  They didn’t have much train­ing and didn’t have much idea of what they had to do — but they had fun!

Nursing has changed so much since then, but they had parties, gave con­certs, and there was a Prize Giving, some­thing that doesn’t happen now.

In 1971, Barbara decided to become a mid­wife and came to Sheffield Jessop’s Hospital.  In Sheffield, she found the buses very puzz­ling.  Where did the ‘Circular’ go to?

The ‘Intake’ bus invited you to get on, but where did you get off?  What was the ‘Halfway’ bus half way to?  She also found that in Jessop’s Hospital there was a lovely statue of a mother and chil­dren, but some people were scan­dal­ised and wanted it removed because the mother in the statue was not wear­ing a wed­ding ring!

Barbara later worked abroad in Switzerland and Canada then came back to Sheffield to work at the Royal Hospital in the Renal Transplant depart­ment.  (She was involved in the first Transplant Olympics in 1978 and the second Olympics in 1979.)

The Royal Hospital was later sched­uled to close, so the depart­ment was moved to the Hallamshire Hospital on 29th October 1978.  There was a dis­tress­ing case when a trans­plant patient was moved in a fur­niture van and unfor­tu­nately died.

Barbara became a teacher, took time off from 1984 to 1991, and then went back to work with the hos­pice move­ment with Dame Cicely Saunders and Professor Eric Wilkes at St. Luke’s Hospice.  She worked for 18 years in Palliative Care edu­ca­tion.

In 2008 she moved to Sheffield Hallam University to run a degree course in Palliative Care, and has been a volun­teer at St. Luke’s Hospice for 25 years.

Barbara ended her talk by encour­aging every­one to talk more openly about death, dying and bereave­ment.  She asked if we all were car­ry­ing a Donor Card?  Had we all planned our funer­als, or at least left inform­a­tion about our wishes and pref­er­ences?

Had we left a digital legacy — telling our next of kin our inter­net pass­word etc. so they could find any inform­a­tion that we may have left online?  Had we all arranged an L.P.A (Lasting Power of Attorney)?

This was a very inform­at­ive, enjoy­able talk, extremely well delivered by an impress­ive lady, who does not look any­where near the ‘grave’ in the title of her talk!

Beekeeping. Peter Miles. 10th December 2018

The Honey Bee Show                 Peter Miles

 

Peter has been a bee-keeper for over 45 years and is still find­ing out how bees do what they do.

 

Imagine a com­puter that can fly, can nav­ig­ate to the inch over a dis­tance of ~7 miles and also con­tains a chem­ical fact­ory inside it.  This is a worker honey bee.

 

Honey bee work­ers col­lect nectar, pollen, water and propilis (a sticky resin).

Honey bees are dif­fer­ent from bumble bees.  Honey bees make honey to feed them over the winter, but bumble bees dont — they all die except the queen.

 

There is only one queen in the honey bee hive.  She is fed by the worker bees as she cannot feed her­self.  Her role is to pro­duce eggs to stock the hive with more bees.  A queen can lay up to 2000 eggs in a day so she needs a lot of food

 

There are many male bees, called drones.  Their role is simply to mate with the queen.

This mating takes place during a flight!  Several drones will mate with the queen on this flight. The drones gen­italia are ripped off during this mating and the drones die.  How lucky are the drones, who fol­lowed the queen in this flight, but never man­aged to mate!

 

Honey bee work­ers make the hexagonal cells in the hon­ey­combs from wax that is made by the bees them­selves. The bees must con­sume 8oz. of honey to make 1oz. of wax. 

The cells are used to store honey.  Honey is made from nectar, which is con­cen­trated by remov­ing water.  It is then filled into cells which are capped by wax made by the bel­lies of the work­ers from honey and chem­ic­als from inside the bees.  The caps are stuck on using propilis. 

Some cells are used as a breed­ing area where the eggs laid by the queen become larvae, then pupae, and then new bees. 

Pollen is also stored in the cells to feed the larvae.

The work­ers col­lect nectar and pollen to make larvae bread, which is absorbed by the larvae so they grow and pupate and emerge and are then fed by the work­ers.  After 12 days they get their wings and go out col­lect­ing in their turn.  Some of the work­ers stay at the exit to the hive and fan their wings to provide vent­il­a­tion to the hive.

Some work­ers act as guards to pro­tect the hive from pred­at­ors and other dangers.

 

On these col­lec­tion flights the bees are very import­ant pol­lin­at­ors of plants.  They also col­lect water to take back to the hive to reg­u­late the humid­ity and to dilute the food for the larvae.  A worker that has found a good source of nectar and pollen goes back to the hive and per­forms a wiggle dance to inform the rest of the work­ers of the dir­ec­tion and dis­tance to this new source.  The bees com­mu­nic­ate is this way because there is no light in the hive.  The other work­ers take on enough fuel to reach the source and follow the dir­ec­tions, 40 degrees to the Sun and 1.2 miles know­ing there will be enough fuel there for the return jour­ney. 

 

A bee can pro­tect itself by using its sting.  It will usu­ally attack the eyes and the ankles.

The sting is a sharp prong with a barbed tip.  The sting base is in a mus­cu­lar poison sac but when the bee stings the barbed tip causes the sac to be pulled out and the bee dies.

 

When the hive gets full and becomes crowded the queen will lay some queen eggs.  These egg larvae are fed with royal jelly until one pupates and  is ready to emerge.

When the new queen is born it kills the other queen cells by sting­ing them.

 

The old queen then vacates the hive, taking with her about half the hive pop­u­la­tion in a swarm.  They dont go far and often can be found hanging in a mass on a tree branch with the queen in the middle sur­roun­ded by her swarm.  They never go back to the ori­ginal hive, as if they have for­got­ten the pass­word or it has been changed.

 

Bees see flowers by ultra violet light  and also follow odours given out by flowers.

Good plants for bees are willow herbs, brambles, thistles, dan­deli­ons and clovers, but most nectar is col­lec­ted from trees like hawthorn and syca­more.  Many other flower­ing plants are useful to bees and they will travel up to 4 miles to col­lect nectar.

 

Each worker bee in her life­time col­lects only enough nectar to pro­duce one tea­spoon­ful of honey, but that would fuel her to make a flight around the world.

A 12 oz. jar of honey con­tains 72 tea­spoon­ful of honey and to fill that jar would need 26,705 bee visits, an approx­im­ate flying dis­tance of 25.000 miles.

 

The female bees are given the name work­ers because they are:

Cleaners and hygien­ists, keep­ing the hive and combs as clean as oper­at­ing theatres
Heaters, using body heat to main­tain hive tem­per­at­ure
Feeders, of larvae, pupae and emer­ging new work­ers, and feed­ers of drones
Feeders and attend­ants of the queen
Wax pro­du­cers 
Comb build­ers
Nectar pro­cessors
Guards
Undertakers
Ventilators
Hydrators
Collectors of nectar, pollen water and propilis

 

The expres­sion, As busy as a bee now takes on extra mean­ing for me!

A fas­cin­at­ing talk even though I am not keen on honey.