Admiral Lord Collingwood — Peter Stubbs — 30th April 2018.

Collingwood was born in Newcastle in 1748. He was named Cuthbert after the saint from Holy Island. His father was a Newcastle trader and not a wealthy man.
He began his naval career at the age of twelve on HMS Shannon under the com­mand of his uncle Richard Braithwaite. After five years he became a mid­ship­man and, after passing exams in seaman­ship and nav­ig­a­tion, he became a lieu­ten­ant.
He first met Nelson in 1777 when he was twenty five and Nelson was fif­teen. Whilst he was tall, robust and con­fid­ent, Nelson was smal­ler, frail and sickly. Their friend­ship lasted until Nelson’s death in 1805 at the Battle of Trafalgar..
Collingwood mar­ried Sarah Blackwell and, though he was at sea for most of the time, he man­aged to father two daugh­ters. Between 1761 and 1810 he only spent five years in England and, on one occa­sion, was not home for seven years.
His com­pan­ion whilst at sea was his Newfoundland dog called Bouncer. The dog went every­where with him, often swim­ming along­side the rowing boat which took him ashore.
In 1783 he was in com­mand of HMS Mediator and posted to the West Indies.Nelson was also there and together they pre­ven­ted American ships from trad­ing with the West Indies.
On the few occa­sions when he was at home, Collingwood walked on the north moors scat­ter­ing acorns to ensure the supply of oaks for ship­build­ing for many years to come.
He was a hard work­ing, con­sid­er­ate man who gained the respect of his crew by instilling dis­cip­line and abandon­ing cor­poral pun­ish­ment. Men, guilty of swear­ing or bul­ly­ing were pun­ished by having to clean out the prim­it­ive “loos” instead of being flogged. The pro­vi­sions on the ship were of great con­cern to him and he made sure that enough meat and food were taken aboard the ship.
His gun­nery crew were trained incess­antly and, in 1795, at the Battle of Cape St. Vincent, his ship was cap­able of firing three full broad­sides in three and a half minutes.
In 1793 France declared war on Britain that lasted twenty two years. Now cap­tain of the Barfleur, Collingwood won vic­tory at the “Glorious First of June” battle. Six French ships were cap­tured and Collingwood was wounded. Though he was in the thick of the action, he was not men­tioned in dis­patches and did not receive a gold medal — this grieved him greatly.
During the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805, the French fleet was in the form of a cres­cent but the English fleet attacked them in two par­al­lel lines. Collingwood, at the head of one of the lines, was the first to engage the enemy and his ship fired broad­sides with such rapid­ity and pre­ci­sion that the Spanish flag ship, the Santa Anna almost sank. Nelson was killed during this battle and Collingwood assumed the title of Commander in Chief.
He was pro­moted to Vice Admiral and became Baron Collingwood. He was awar­ded gold medals for Trafalgar and Cape St. Vincent which he only accep­ted on the con­di­tion that he got one for the First of June Battle also.
In 1805 he was com­mander of the Mediterranean fleet and wished that he could return home. This was denied as the gov­ern­ment still required his ser­vices. His health declined rap­idly and he was forced to request retire­ment which was gran­ted but he died at sea on the 7th March 1810 on his way home. He was laid to rest in St. Paul’s Cathedral along­side Nelson’s tomb.
Peter was thanked for his inter­est­ing and inform­at­ive talk and he prom­ised to visit Probus again in the future when he has fin­ished his research into the Battle of Jutland.

(see his talks in March 2019 for the War at Sea with Germany — PJ )